Exam revision notes for grade 11 biology. Units covered: microscopy, classification, plant & animal kingdoms, ecosystems, cycles, relationships/symbiosis and environmental change

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BIOLOGY NOTES TERM 1 2003

MICROSCOPY

Ocular - lens used for magnification (usually x10)

Objectives - lenses used for magnification

Lower powerx4

Medium powerx10

High powerx40

Course adjustment - focuses image, moves focus quickly

Fine adjustment - focuses image, moves focus slowly

Stage - specimens are placed here

Condenser - focuses light

Iris diaphragm - controls amount of light passing through the specimen

TOTAL MAGNIFICATION

=

OCULAR MAGNIFICATION X OBJECTIVE MAGNIFICATION

CLASSIFICATION

Taxonomy

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Scientific names

Binomial system uses GENUS and SPECIES names

Keys

1)branching Keys

these keys use a tree diagram to sort out specimens

2)Dichotomous Keys

These keys use a series to pairs of questions to sort out specimens

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

Five Kingdoms

Monera - bacteria

Protsita - single celled (have a nucleus)

Fungi - mushrooms/toadstools etc (do not photosynthesise)

Plants - contain chlorophyll and photosynthesise

Animals - multi-cellular life forms that rely on other means for nutrition

Animal Kingdom

Phylum porifera

·Sponges

·Primitive

·No organs or systems

·Basically, a group of cells with a common collective purpose

·Sponges are filter feeders

Phylum Cnidaria

·Anemones, corals and jelly fish

·Possess stinging cells called cnidocytes

·Possess a very simple digestive system, a sac with one opening

·Corals secrete a hard calcareous (calcium carbonate) skeleton

·2 main body forms:

1)Polyp

Include corals and anemones

2)Medusa

Include jellyfish

Phylum platyhelminthyes

·Tapeworms

·Very simple digestive system (may be absent)

·Well developed reproductive system

·Can be free living or parasitic

·Tapeworms and flukes (par.)

·Planarians (free living)

Phylum Nematoda

·Roundworms, heartworm, hookworm, pinworm

·Parasitic or free living

·Digestive system with 2 openings

Phylum Mollusca

·Molluscs snails, slugs, oysters, cuttlefish, octopus, abilone

·Soft muscular body often with a hard calcareous shell (sometimes internal)

·Well developed eyes

·Complex nervous system

Phylum Annelida

·Segmented worms, earth worms, leeches, marine worms

·Body is divided into segments, can possess appendages (sep. marine worms)

Phylum Arthropoda

·Hard exoskeleton with segments

Class Crustoces

·Crustaceans: crabs, lobsters, prawns, shrimps, crayfish, barnacles, water fleas

Class Chelicerata

·Arachnids: spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions

Class Diplopoda

·Millipedes

Class Chilopoda

·Centipedes

Class Insecta

·Insects

·Possess a ventral nerve chord (complex nervous system)

·Largest phylum in animal kingdom, 800 000 species

Phylum Echinodermata

Starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber

·Spiny skinned

·Radially symmetrical

·Internal calcareous skeleton

·Tube feet moved by water/fluid pressure

Phylum Chordata

·Dorsal nerve chord

·Most advanced body design

Subphylum Urochordata

·Only possess dorsal nerve chord as larvae

e.g. sea squirt

Subphylum Cehpalochordata

·Possess dorsal nerve chord right through to adult hood

·Do not possess a backbone

e.g. lancelet

Subphylum Vertebrata

·Possess a backbone

·Commonly called vertebrates

Class Chondricthyes

·Sharks, rays

·Cartilage skeleton

·2 chambered heart

class Osteichthyes

·True bony fish

·Skeleton made of bone

·What we commonly call fish, seahorse, eel

Class Amphibia

·Frogs, toads, salamanders

·Undergo metamorphosis from young to adult, tadpole - frog

·Lay eggs and can only reproduce in water

·Possess lungs

Class Reptilia

·Lizards, snakes, crocodiles, turtles, tortoises

·Lay eggs but reproduce on land

·3 chambered heart

Class Aves

·Birds, e.g. penguin, emus, ostriches

·Possess feathers and beaks

·Lay eggs

·Birds are homeothermic (have a constant body temp.)

·Have a 4 chambered heart

Class Mammalia

·Mammary glands that secrete milk

·4 chambered heart

·Homeothermic

Monotremes

·Platypus, echidna

·Lay eggs

Marsupials

·Kangaroos, wombat, koala

·Have a pouch

·Give birth to extremely underdeveloped young that need to live in pouch

Placental Mammals

·Give birth to well developed young

·Unborn young nurtured by a placenta

Plant Kingdom

Phylum tracheophyta

·Vascular plants, possess special tissue that conducts water nutrients

·This allows these plants to attain a greater size

Class Filicopsida

·Ferns

Class Cycadopsida

·Cycads

Class Ginkgopsida

·Maidenhair

Class coniferopsida

·Pine trees, etc

·Possess cones

Class angiospermopsida

·Flowering plants

Subclass Monocatyledonae

Grasses, lilies, orchids and palms

Subclass Dicotyledonae

Most of the flowering trees and shrubs

Phylum Algae

·Simple structure, does not extend into leaves, stems and roots

·Most live underwater

·Some are microscopic single-celled plants and others are giant and leathery

Phylum Bryophyta

·Mosses, liverworts

·Small, less than 40cm tall

·Often bear structures resembling stems and leaves

·Lack well developed vascular tissue and true roots

KINGDOM ANAMALIA

PORIFERA CNIDARIA PLATYHELMINTHES NEMATODA MOLLUSCA ANNELIDA ARTHROPODA ECHINODERMATA CHORDATA

UROCHORDATA CEPHALOCHORDATA VERTEBRATA

Crustacea chelicerata diplopoda chilopda insecta

Chondricthyes Ostechthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia

Arachnids/Kingcrabs

BIOLOGY - TERM 2

REVISION NOTES

ECOSYSTEMS

DEFINITIONS:

Population - a group of organisms of the same kind living in a particular place

Community - is the group of all organisms living in a particular place.

Ecosystem - is the combination of living things and the physical environment.

Abiotic - non-living component of an organisms surroundings

Biotic - living component of an organisms surroundings.

Habitat - an organisms immediate surroundings.

Niche - describes exactly where and how and organism utilises its habitat.

Food chain -

Food web -

Trophic levels - describes the position that an organism fill in a food chain or web

Autotroph - a self-feeder or producer

Heterotroph - a consumer.

Decomposer -

Energy Flow:

In ecosystems:

·The suns is the primary source of energy in any ecosystem

·Plants harness only .1% of the sun's energy that reaches the earth

·This small percentage of energy is all that keeps life, as we know it in existence

Through food webs:

·In order for energy to reach top order consumers in a food web, it has to pass through a number of different trophic levels

·This means that the energy passed from one organism feeds another

The nature of energy:

·Energy is not created or destroyed

·Energy is converted from one form to another

·When energy is converted, some of it is lost to the system

·When energy is converted in a food web, some of it is lost as heat.

·Therefore energy transfer is never 100% efficient.

The loss of energy along a food chain:

Solar energy

Biomass:

·The total mass of living tissue in an ecosystem

·A biomass pyramid describes the amount of biomass at each trophic level in an ecosystem

·There is less energy available to sustain biomass as we progress up the food chain. Because of this, biomass decreases thus forming the typical shape of a biomass pyramid.

CYCLES

Water:

·The suns energy powers this cycle

·Precipitation is run off from streams, rivers and lakes, rain, snow, sleet, dew, etc

·Water is evaporated from lakes, streams, rivers and oceans, etc.

·Water is transpired from plants.

Carbon:

CARBON IN ATMOSPHERE

PLANTS

ANIMALS

DECOMPOSERS

SOME CARBON LOCKED

IN FOSSIL FUELS

Nitrogen:

Phosphorous:

RELATIONSHIPS - SYMBIOSIS

Mutualism:

·Involves two organisms living closely together with both species benefiting from this association

·E.g clown fish & anemone, clown fish gets protection (naturally immune to stings of anemone) anemone receives food scraps from clown fish and gets cleaned as well

Commensalism:

·Involves one species gaining benefit form living closely with another species, which is neither harmed nor benefited.

·E.g barnacles on whales, barnacle receives protection and feeding opportunities while the3 whale is neither harmed nor benefited.

Parasitism:

·Involves one species gaining nutrition at the expense or detriment of another species.

·Parasite does not kill its host outright but rather enables it to survive for as long as possible

·Endoparasites (live inside hosts) e.g. tapeworm

·Ectoparasites (live on outer surfaces of host) e.g. tick, leech, strangler fig

Competition:

·Involves organisms competing for the same resource

·Organisms involved can be from the same species or from different species

·Resources competed for include: food, shelter, territory, mates, etc

·E.g foxes competing for hares or rainforest or trees competing for sunlight

Predator/prey:

·Involves one species feeding on another

·E.g dingo eats bandicoot or kangaroo eats grass

EVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

Human factors:

·Land clearing

·Erosion

·Pollution

Natural changes

Primary succession:

·Occurs when living things colonise new land such as in a volcanic eruption

·Bacteria and lichens are normally the first organisms that can live on bare rock

·As organisms progressively colonise an area, they change the environment, thus making it suitable for new species

·Sometimes when organisms change an environment, it is no longer suitable for themselves

·The changing environment leads to a change in species, which is in essence, what a succession is.

Secondary succession:

·Occurs in an already established ecosystem

·These successions are often caused by natural disasters like floods or fires

·Although they do not involve a total change in species they often involve a marked change ad new species take hold in the affected area.

CLASSIFICATION

Taxonomy:

·Kingdom

·Phylum

·Class

·Order

·Family

·Genus

·Species

Scientific names:

·Binomial system uses GENUS and SPECIES names

Keys:

1)Branching Keys

These keys use a tree diagram to sort out specimens

2)Dichotomous Keys

These keys use a series to pairs of questions to sort out specimens

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS:

·Five Kingdoms:

·Monera - bacteria

·Protsita - single celled (have a nucleus)

·Fungi - mushrooms/toadstools etc (do not photosynthesise)

·Plants - contain chlorophyll and photosynthesise

·Animals - multi-cellular life forms that rely on other means for nutrition

Humans:

Phylum Chordata

·Dorsal nerve chord

·Most advanced body design

Subphylum Vertebrata

·Possess a backbone

·Commonly called vertebrates

Class Mammalia

·Mammary glands that secrete milk

·4 chambered heart

·Homeothermic

Placental Mammals

·Give birth to well developed young

·Unborn young nurtured by a placenta