A group is a collection of two or more people who possess common purpose. Work groups may be created by management to perform specific functions, or can emerge naturally by themselves. The formation of group at work is at once a natural consequence of the division of labour and an important means of fulfilling individual social needs. Work group may be primary or secondary, formal or informal. A primary group consists of members who come into direct face to face contact. Secondary groups are larger, less personal, and lack immediate direct contact between members. Examples of primary groups are small departments within a firm, project teams, families, sports, teams or other direct contact recreational association. Secondary group might be factories, communities, long assembly lines where workers do not come into contact with each other or geographical division of a firm. These groups will be less solid than primary groups, though interactions between members will still occur.
Within primary group, communications are rapid and direct. Membership will often provide social and psychological support during times of stress.
Formal and informal groups
Formal group are deliberately created by management for particular predetermined purposes . Management selects group members, leaders and methods of doing work. A formal group may be defined with respect to a task, function, status within the managerial hierarchy ( such as members of the bored of directors), or length of service with the firm (long serving employees might receive privileges not available to others and hence constitute an identifiable group). Formal group are characterised by a high degree of managerial involvement in co-ordinating, controlling and defining the nature of the activities they undertake. Group structure are clearly defined, and their tasks are carefully delineated.
Informal groups can form without management support. They are established by people who feel...