To determine whether a particular action was decided upon by an individual or whether the action was predetermined one must study its cause. In studying cause one finds that there are two types of causes those that are typified by natural laws, such as a dropped book falling to the ground, and those typified by the moral considerations of men. This distinction is important because it shows both that no man can control his environment contrary to the laws of natural or scientific laws, but neither are his actions completely out of his control.
The first type of cause we can consider as accepted facts, these would be the natural and scientific laws that all objects must obey. It is obviously false to assume that a man may walk through a tree or fly like a bird, but these things can be factors in the set of causes leading to an action.
The second type of cause is more difficult to define. It is made up of the past experience and perceptions of men, but more importantly it is the way in which men use these things. This type of cause is arrived at differently in everyone, and it cannot be measured, predicted, or understood as well as the other type. In fact it is often unable to be seen at all, but it must exist simply because the entire world or even the simple workings of one man's brain cannot be described completely using only the laws of nature. A complex moral decision is created in the mind of men by more that just a random or predictable set of electrical impulses, but by the not completely understood spiritual and psychological make-up of men. This type is the "true" cause of an action.
When one sees...