The overall role of training is to develop individuals , groups and the organisation to perform more effectively. the training function has three potential distinct roles to perform. One role is as consultant to top management for organisational problem solving, by helping identify and solve problems. The second role is about formulating of training policy and generally planning and organising training resources. The third role is about direct training, identifying needs, designing and running courses and advising line managers. (G.Bunch)
Development can be regarded as " activities undertaken by the enterprise to release the potential of individuals in order to further the ends of the enterprise and to match the capabilities inclinations and goals of the individuals to those ends".(cornelius p.83)
After the 1980 recession there has been a shift from production orientated production to the consumption-orientated production.(P.Teague). This means that instead of having a single product marketed to the whole market we now have a vast selection of different products marketed to niche markets.(S.
Birley) It is difficult for niche markets to utilise economies of scale, and there is also a high requirement for flexibility since the company may have to switch the production to an alternative product. As technology advances, new, faster, better goods and services are available and in demand. To fulfil consumer demand, there is another shift in the labour market toward workers who are trained in the skills that can provide such goods and services. As a result there will be a high need for skilled workers in various fields so that they will be able to perform multiple tasks. Specialisation in one specific task (scientific approach) will not be a viable solution when economies of scale can not be used effectively either because the market is too small or saturated from the current firms...