Explain how managers can use motivation theories to influence the behaviour of people in organizations.
Table of Content
The meaning of motivation 6
Theories of motivation
The Need or Content Theories of motivation
Abraham Harold Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 8
Douglas Mc Gregor's Theory X and Theory Y 12
Frederick Herzberg's Motivator Hygiene Theory 15
David McClelland's Acquired-Needs Theory 17
The Process or Cognitive Theories of Motivation
Victor H. Vroom's Expectancy Theory (The VIE Theory) 20
The Reinforcement Theory 23
Understanding people's perceptions, attitudes, motivations and behaviours is extremely important for achieving both managerial and organisational effectiveness. To get the very best out of people in work settings, managers constantly need knowledge about the behaviour of individuals and groups in organisations; they also need to be aware of the organisational and environmental variables that can potentially affect human behaviour.
They need to understand, anticipate, modify and improve behaviours that are organizationally meaningful and relevant.
The contribution of people, through their motivation and commitment, and dedicated behaviour towards the goals and objectives of the organisation, remain the single most important factor in making organisations better and more effective.
Some people like their jobs and work harder as well as smarter. They are also very proud of the organizations for which they work. Other people simply dislike their jobs and would do anything just to avoid working. They would also prefer, if given the choice, to leave the organizations where they are working. Such attitudes and behaviours are not uncommon. They have a direct link with the issue of motivation at work.
Managers must use sophisticated knowledge of people's motivation to influence human behaviour in the right direction. Managers are always expected to...