Explain with reference to the relevant experimental evidence the main models of pattern recognition.
Adaptation of Sperling's model of Information processing explores the third process after Sensory Input, Pattern Recognition. Pattern recognition is the process by which we identify the various stimuli which have been encoded by our sensory systems. Evidence of the processes of how individuals assess stimuli is determined by establishing the main theoretical models and determing the patterns that arise of the stimuli of written and spoken word and objects. The investigation of these two stimuli involves recognising written and spoken letters, how individuals recognise words made up of these letters, and the recognition and semantic development of sentences made up of these words.
Three model types provide experimental evidence of Pattern recognition these being; Template Models, Feature Models, and Structural Models. The Template theory argues that we recognise patterns by comparing them to stored representations.
There are three basic assumptions of the theory behind Template models;
1) Memories are represented as holistic unanalyzed entity (a template).
2) An input pattern is compared to the stored representation.
3) Identity is determined by selection of the template with the greatest amount of overlap and we recognise a given pattern by the template which matches that stimulus most closely. For example the numbers on a check are recognized by a Template system.
Although effective, a number of problems can occur with the template model of Pattern recognition. One of the main problems is that a given object may be represented by a range of different physical patterns, which suggests there is intolerance to deviations. The second problem is a number of templates may be required.
Due to the shortcomings of the Template theory, an alternative explanation of pattern recognition was developed. This explanation, known as Feature-Detection theory...