Vygotsky (1978) supports the view that childrenÃÂs academic performance is not influenced through cognition only but by their social world as well. He posits that children learn through adult interaction and the family is a social agent that helps to provide this type of interaction which influences academic performance. Coleman (1996) attributes half of the variance in academic achievement to family life. Regardless of family types parents should stay involved with childrenÃÂs education to help them maximize their academic achievement or performance.
One should be aware of the importance of parental involvement in a studentÃÂs academic performance. As cited by, Boyer, and Olmscheid, (1999), many studies have clearly demonstrated that family involvement encourages student achievement or other positive behaviours and attitudes that increase success in school. Pape, (1999) agrees that when parents or families are involved in their children's education, children not only perform better in school, but schools improve as well.
In contrast to these theories Mullis (2004), states that if a child desires to learn, nothing will be able to deter him from doing so. He believes that the internal motivation is more dominant in the process of learning than is parental involvement.
While the researcher can agree with Mullis that internal motivation drives a child to want more, one cannot detour from the fact that parental involvement according to Boyer, and Olmscheid encourages student achievement or other positive behaviours and attitudes that increase success in school.
Douglas (1960), gives a trademark view of Motivation based on the assumption that:1.The average person inherently dislikes work and will avoid it if at all possible.
2.As a result, most people have to be coerced, controlled and threatened if they are to put in enough effort to achieve the organizationÃÂs goals.
3. In fact the average person prefers to...