Federal Court Rulings.
A Federal Appeals Court ruled two to one that reciting the Pledge of Allegiance is unconstitutional in public schools because of the phrase "one nation under God." In the article regarding the use of the phrase "under God" there are three main issues addressed. One is the question of whether or not the phrase violates The Establishments Clause of the United States Constitution in regards to the separation of church and state. Second, is the question of whether or not the use of the phrase permits religious discrimination. The third issue here is whether the phrase is an attempt by the state, or government, to impose a theological doctrine, or specific religious content, on an individual. It was one of the most closely watched church-state cases in the Court's history: a legal challenge to include the phrase "under God" in public school recitations of the Pledge of Allegiance.
A surprising number of Americans felt that the judges had a good point, that the reference to God in the pledge was an inappropriate endorsement of religion. Zirkel (2003) states, atheists and agnostics are offended by an unnecessary reference to God in a patriotic pledge. However, the Supreme Court has ruled in the past that ceremonial references to God in public places and institutions do not represent an establishment of religion. The Court has never blinked, for example, at the use of a Bible in a courtroom, where one swears to tell the truth "So help me God".
The United States' government regularly acknowledges the existence of a "Creator" or "God" as an illustration of its cultural and political philosophy. A motto for the United States http://www.shgresources.com/us/symbols/motto "In God We Trust" was written in 1863 and is inscribed on the nation's currency. Additionally, The Declaration of Independence adopted...