Fluid and Electrolytes made easy study notes.
Fluid and Electrolytes
t State of equilibrium in internal environment of body, naturally maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy survival
t Body fluids and electrolytes play an important role
Water Content of the Body
t Accounts for 60% of body weight in adult
t 70-80% of body weight in infant
t Varies with gender, body mass, and age
t Intracellular fluid (ICF)
t Extracellular fluid (ECF)
l Intravascular (plasma)
Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
t Fluid located within cells
t 42% of body weight
t Most prevalent cation is potassium (K+)
t Most prevalent anion is phosphate (PO4-)
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
t Fluid spaces between cells (interstitial fluid) and the plasma space
l Most prevalent anion is chloride (Cl-)
l Most prevalent cation is sodium (Na+)
l Expands and contracts
l 2/3 of ECF in interstitium
t Intravascular (IV)
l Within vascular space
l Measured with blood tests
l 1/3 of ECF
t Small but important fluid compartment
t Approximately 1L
t Includes fluid in
l Cerebrospinal fluid
l Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
l Pleural spaces
l Synovial spaces
l Peritoneal fluid spaces
Mechanisms Controlling Fluid and Electrolyte Movement
o Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration
o Occurs in liquids, solids, and gases
o Membrane separating two areas must be permeable to substance for diffusion to occur
t Facilitated diffusion
t Very similar to diffusion
t Specific carrier molecules involved to accelerate diffusion
t Active transport
o Process in which molecules move against concentration gradient
o Example: sodium-potassium pump
o ATP is energy source
t Movement of water between two compartments by a membrane permeable to water but not to a solute
t Water moves from area of low solute concentration to...
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... induction and maintenance of CTL responses, and activation of macrophages and natural killer cells. CD4+ T helper function is typically measured by measuring T cell proliferation ... RNA and proteins, and produced viral particles that were normal in protein content but ...
... bacteria and cancer cells and carrying fluid from the limbs and internal organs back into the blood. Lymphoid tissue contains lymphocytes, which are cells that fight infections. They also try to reject any foreign tissue that gets into the body, such ...
... by fluid and electrolyte imbalance or anorexia (Price & Wilson, 1997). John's feet and ankles become edematous. Peripheral edema is caused by fluid accumulation in the interstitial spaces of ...
... tubules and the loops of Henle. It is important to understand that while the sodium content of the body may change, its concentration in the extracellular fluid remains stabile because of adjustments in water volume ...
... immune responses that allow infection to take hold or electrolyte imbalance, which is turn can produce heart arrhythmia. (Matthews, 1991) After a few sessions with Robyn, and many fits of rage and tears ...
... antibodies are being produced against Sarcocystis neurona within the spine and brain. The test requires spinal fluid from wither the lumbrosacral tap or from the cisterna magna ...
... spinal fluid (CSF) can also provide clues, as certain abnormalities present in these fluids, have been linked to MS. These abnormalities include increased no.? of white blood cells and higher ...
... don't cry out. Doctors and obituaries do not give the killer its name. Families recoil in shame. Leaders shirk responsibility. The ... We pay sporadic attention, turning on the spotlight when an international conference occurs, then turning it off. Good-hearted donors donate ...