Formation of africa.

Essay by yopalalHigh School, 11th gradeB+, April 2003

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For years, Egypt was ruled by a group called the ottomans. In 1811 Albanian Mohammed Ali took power and under his rule the economy and infrastructure expanded. Britain grew worried about Egypt's power, so in 1870 the French and British used the governments overspending as an excuse to take dual control. Eventually riots prompted British military occupation.


In 1830 the French came and occupied Algeria. Abd al kadir called for a Berber ji-had and the French did not defeat them until 1847 when al- kadir was exiled. Fighting continued until 20th century.


At the beginning of the 19th century Tunisia had a very prosperous economy, because Ahmed Bey brought them modernization. Eventualy the French used the countries debts as excuse to establish there.


Morocco stayed independent until 19th century. Mawlay ah- Hasan modernized the country with European style although he met resistance. The country eventually lost their independence in 1912 between France and Spain.


This country stayed under Ottoman rule until Italy invaded in 1911 and the Ottoman resistance collapsed. The Italian's were defied until Umar al Mukhtar was executed in 1931.


In 1854 Faidherbe began his French conquest of the Senegal valley. In 1863 Porto Novo was declared the French protectorate and after that a series of treaties followed.


A group called the Boers had escaped from Holland to South Africa and were living there. In 1899 the British invaded and a war (known as the Boer war) continued on until 1902. The British defeated the Boers and put them in concentration camps.


This country remained independent for two reasons. First they were highly evolved and it would be very difficult to take over their structured government. Second the land was mostly made up of desert and...