Society is based upon human nature to grow and succeed. Two forms of society that can meet the demands of human nature are utopias and capitalism. Both in there own way allow for some period of growth for a society. Different forms of these models exist but neither in its pure form is visible toady in any nation.
In a capitalist society, the general public controls the economy. It allows people to create business and money can flow free between organizations. In most Modern capitalist societies, the government plays a small part in over seeing the transfer of money, but historically that was not always the case. Ideal capitalism was laid out by a Scottish man named Adam Smith in 1776. His main idea was have a government that allowed people to be "free agents" and do what they wish with there money. He claimed that by nature people want money and wish to succeed.
This means that generally people would have success in there investments. This cycle would cause general economic growth. Smith documented all of his ideas in a book called "The Wealth of Nations".
A primary aspect to capitalism was something called pure competition. A private business would decide what and how much of something they wish to make, then how to make it. Then they would seek out labor and profits. From the individual's perspective, a person gets to choose what he or she wants, then he or she goes out and gets it and is nor forced into something else they do not wish to have. Also people get to choose how much they wish to save, and how much to spend.
Modern forms of capitalism differ in few, but major ways from Smith's ideal version. The United States is considered a capitalist society. However...