The process of setting and achieving the organization's goals through organizational resources is called management. To accomplish organizational goals, managers perform four basic functions of managerial work which are known as the four functions of management. These functions include planning, organizing, leading and controlling. These functions are highly integrated and recur throughout the organization. The four functions of management are important to all organizations, whether they are large national corporations, small family based businesses, or nonprofit organization.
1. PlanningPlanning is the first function of management. Planning is the continuing process to set an organization's goals missions and objectives, determining how to accomplish these goals, selecting priorities and results, identifying methods, resources, responsibilities and timeliness. Planning makes organizations adaptable to changes by identifying opportunities and avoiding problems. Planning improves the decision making process and sets the direction for the other functions of management. Planning helps the management to direct employee efforts towards group and organizational goal attainment.
The planning function determines the effectiveness, efficiency and strategy of the organization .The activities in the planning process include: define mission, analyze weaknesses and strengths, identify threats and opportunities, set objectives and goals, develop operations and tactics and monitor plan. Planning is the step that is passed down to employees from the most upper management.
2. OrganizingThe second function of management is organizing. The establishment of the internal organizational structure of an organization and distribution of authority is referred to as organizing. The organizing process translates the planned steps into reality. An organizational structure is the outcome of organizing function. This structure coordinates and motivates employees to work together to achieve goals. The activities in the organizing process include: reviewing plans, list tasks, group tasks into jobs, group jobs, assign work and delegate authority and responsibilities.
3. LeadingThe third function of management is leading.