*As the title indicates, this is a change/continuity AP essay written for World History class. Vaguely, the essay question was: Describe change and continuity in France from the mid-1700s to the mid-1800s.*Like many other European nations in the 1700's, France experienced a dramatic shift of sentiments against the monarchy, nobility, and Catholic Church as the people, fired by rousing new Enlightenment ideals, began to question authority and emphasize the need for equality, liberty, and democracy. The social and political changes in France were best characterized by three different periods - the weak monarchy of King Louis XVI and the subsequent period of confusion after his removal from power, the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte and his downfall, and the new order brought about by the Congress of Vienna; central to these changes were Enlightenment influence, nationalism, and France's relations with other countries. However, despite the great social upheavals of this time period, gender roles remained more or less unchanged and although women had begun to rouse the idea of women's rights, little changed in the way that society viewed women because men still held economic power.
France was the most advanced country of Europe in the 1700's, home to many leading philosophers such as Voltaire and Montesquieu. Despite its prominence, it was experiencing domestic instability and civil unrest. The aloof