Was Frederick II Anti-Papal?
"There were three great frauds in history. Moses, Jesus and Mohammed."
All religions must be tolerated...for...every man must get to heaven in his own way."
Frederick II was perhaps one of the most influential individuals of the period, both for his open secularity - which was highly unusual for his time - and for his quite blatant moves for change within the Empire and what this achieved. Was he "anti-papal?" It would seem that he indeed was, however history would tell us that this perceived anti church stance was purely a result of its own ambitions for power in the Empire, which placed it directly in the way of Frederick's political and religious reforms which earned him his nickname of Stupor Mundi - The Wonder of The World. However, there is also evidence to suggest that Frederick was deliberately manipulating Western European politics to weaken the position of the Church, as well as a possibility that it was actually Innocent III's mistake to have placed Frederick between the Hammer (Germany) and Anvil (South of Italy, or Two Sicilies) which had caused Frederick to take certain actions and earn himself the "anti-papal" title.
Only Frederick's policies, when carefully examined have the potential of solving the enigma of his attitude towards the Papacy. Frederick's problem from the very beginning were his unfortunate family roots which consisted of a Sicilian mother, and a German father which would allow Frederick II to essentially extend control over both sides of the empire, granting him not only immense power, but leaving the papacy authority in Rome in between - which could be crushed at any time. Purely due to Innocent's own fault, Frederick was crowned German king in 1212, after the Pope's political manipulations caused Otto of...