Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932):
Frederick Turner developed the influential frontier thesis that guided several generations of scholars and students in their understanding of the distinctive characteristics of American history. His view of the frontier as the westward-moving source of the nation's democratic politics, open society, unrestricted economy, and rugged individualism, far removed from the corruptions of urban life, gripped the popular imagination as well. Turner's description of the frontier experience exaggerated the homogenizing effect of the environment and virtually ignored the role of women, African Americans, Indians, and Asians in shaping the diverse human geography of the western United States.
As businesses grow, owners sought to integrate all processes of production and distribution into single companies, thus producing even larger firms. Other joined forces with their competitors in pools or trusts in an effort to dominate entire industries. This process of industrial combination and concentration transformed the nation's social order as well as aroused widespread dissent and the emergence of an organized labor movement.
The Rise of Big Business (1869-1899):
The Industrial Revolution created huge corporations that came to dominate the economy as well as political and social life during the 19th century. A nationwide shortage of labor served as a powerful incentive, motivating inventors and business owners to develop more efficient, labor-saving machinery. Technological innovations not only created new products but also brought about improved machinery and equipment, spurring dramatic advances in productivity. As the volume of production increased, the process developed standardized machinery and parts, which became available nationwide. A national government-subsidized network of railroads connecting the East and West coasts played a crucial role in the development of related industries and in the evolution of a national market for goods and services, and industries in the U.S. also benefitted from an abundance of power...