Tentative Thesis Statement: Latin America's revolutionary means, including non-violence, moderate reforms, and lack of a period of terror, disprove Crane Brinton's theory about phases/stages of revolution.
I. Non-Violence A. Brazil did not have any real war or conflict.
1. When Napoleon's armies conquered Portugal, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil. The Portuguese King introduced many reforms during his stay.
2. The Portuguese King left the crown to Dom Pedro.
B. Dom Pedro accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press and religion as well as an elected legislature.
II. Moderate Reforms A. Haiti 1. In 1798, Toussaint achieved his goal of freeing enslaved Haitians. He then set about rebuilding the country, winning support of French planters.
2. A series of reforms lessened the military war for independence.
B. Brazil 1. Free trade was a reform of the Portuguese King who ruled Brazil.
2. Brazil remaining a monarchy until 1889, where social and political turmoil led to the creation of a Brazilian republic.
III. Lack of Terror A. Haiti 1. Toussaint leads slave revolt in Haiti, colonial rule ends in much of Latin America, and attempts made to rebuild economies.
2. 18 separate republics set up, and continuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gain economic independence.
B. Mexico 1. When independence was granted, they slowly began to unify in an attempt to stabilize a troubling government.
2. Mexico set up the Republic of Mexico soon after Iturbide crowned himself emperor. Mexico became independent in 1821.
3. Mexicans wanted power for themselves, but had no desire for economic and social changes that might change their way of life.