Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Freud was born into a Jewish family on May 6th 1856. Little is known of Freud's early life, as he destroyed his personal papers at least twice, once in 1885 and again in 1907. His later papers were closely guarded in the Sigmund Freud Archives and only available to Ernest Jones, his official biographer, and a few other members of the inner circle of psychoanalysis. Freud smoked cigars for most of his life; after having his jaw removed, he even then continued to smoke a pack daily until his death on September 23rd, 1939.
Freud conceived of the mind as having only a fixed amount of psychic energy, or "libido". This energy fuelled the thought processes, perception, imagination, memory, and sexual urges. In Freud's theory, the mind, like the universe, could neither create nor destroy energy, but merely transfer it from one form or function to another.
Freud advanced a theory of personality development focussing on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on a person's emerging personality. With-in this study he emerged with five different stages. The Oral Stage, Anal Stage, Phallic Stage, Latency Stage and finally the Genital Stage.
During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures (sucking). Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails. Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others.
The child's focus of pleasure in this stage...