Management is creative problem solving. This creative problem solving is accomplished through the four functions of management; planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The intended result is the use of an organization's resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives. (From Higgins, Page 7)
First, planning is an ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest views of the organization, example e.g., its mission, and the narrowest, example e.g., and a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal.
Second, organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of task and the flow of information within the organization. It is in this function that managers distribute authority.
Third, directing is influencing people's behavior for the purpose of helping all personnel to accomplish the organization's mission and objectives while helping them accomplish their own career objectives.
Lastly, controlling is a process of establishing performance. Standards based on the firm's objectives, measuring and reporting actual performance comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary.
Management success is gained through accomplishment of goals and objectives. Managers fail when they do not accomplish goals and objectives. I believe that this has a great deal to do with communication. A manager can live and die by the four functions of management and yet if they are not capable of clearly stating the goals and objectives through communication to their subordinates, then the organization will fail.
Leadership I believe is too often confused with the question of how people in positions of authority influence employees to pull in the same direction. This I would say is a manager.
Leadership is the process of directing or...