The Arab Republic of Egypt
The first rays of modernization in Egypt shined when Mohammad Ali took over power in 1803 after defeating the Mamlouks. He empowered his son Ibrahim Bacha. Ibrahim's main concern was Arab Nationalism and the spread of his father's dynasty all over Arab nations. But Arabs were not that interested in such concepts then. His only key to success were the Christian how led to Arab Renaissance. The dynasty, a dream come true, was brought down when the Europeans defeated Bacha. So he had to rebuild the state, by growing a strong national army and a French modeled, Armenian made bureaucracy. All the improvements and facilities were made out to better service the army, such as hospitals, factories and schools.
The British dynasty
The British invaded Egypt to maintain full control over the Suez Canal. British promoted liberalism meanwhile they kept distance with the local population.
During that time various parties and movements flourished. Especially after the First World War, these parties were aiming and expecting independence. The Wafd party is one of those major parties that time led by Saad Zaghloul. As for the Muslim brothers, it was the active movement. The uprising activism of the Egyptians and the blockage that they faced from the British; generated crucial instability. All these were main key points for the creation of the Free Officers Movement.
Socialism in Egypt
Young army officers created a movement that they named the Free Officers Movement and they made a coup d'etat possible in 1952 taking over power in Egypt till 1954 General Mohammad Naguib was the person in charge and in control, he wanted to restructure the economy. Then Nasser came to power, he wanted to modernize Egypt. Following the Soviet Socialist model and being influenced by the concept...