In the simplest organization, coordination could be achieved through the use of organizational goals. As the complexity of the organization increases, coordination relies increasingly on the use of direct supervision and task standardization. So, with increased organizational complexity comes an increased need to manage human activities. The manager is challenged to meld the demands of the organization and the needs of the workers into a functioning whole.
However, it is only when employees are highly motivated in their organizations that they stay there and perform at peak level. Quick fixes are based on the notion that managers and consultants can supply some simple stimulus to produce sustained motivation in other people. The notion assumes that people are either naturally demotivated and waiting to be "pumped up" or, worse, enjoy being lethargic drones whose motivational batteries immediately run down if left alone. It assumes that people have no power for self-renewal.
You don't unilaterally motivate other people in the long term. We have been burdening managers for years with an impossible task, telling them they ought to motivate others singlehandedly, when the most a manager can do for others is to jump-start them - inspire them. Real motivation catches internally, after the mission is clear. Peak performers draw productivity from deeper reserves that are inexhaustible - from the sources of motivation.
You can tell people to value excellence. You can insist that they increase their productivity. You can emphasize the need for changing their behavior. You can attempt to train people and motivate them to upgrade their job skills and increase their effectiveness. But until an individual makes a personal commitment to achieving peak performance or makes that internal decision to excel, nothing much will happen.
There are different models used in motivating personnel. There is the human relations model which...