Jefferson did not present his candidacy for a third presidential period, but he helped elect the Democratic-Republican candidate from Virginia, James Madison, as president in 1808. Madison was the 4th president who also presided for two periods, from 1809 to 1817. During these years he had to confront serious problems. The worst of them was the continuous confrontations with Great Britain. Neither English nor French were in disposition to cede to American petitions. The United States wanted to have control over fur trade and other riches. Finally, President Madison had to hear many petitions and asked congress to declare war on Great Britain. Congress accepted and the War of 1812 began.
All of population did not support the war. Northeastern merchants and imports opposed the war, for they were afraid that commerce there could be destroyed. Also, Great Britain was in poor conditions. As a result of this, the war ended with no defeats or victories for any of the two countries.
In 1814, Great Britain took over Washington D. C. and burned it. Later, they attacked Baltimore but finally they were expelled. When it was clearly seen that none of the two countries were able to win the war, both decided to put an end to it. Finally, it was given and end to the War of 1812 with the signed Treaty of Gante. Although the treaty of Gante ended the confrontations, it did not resolve the problems provoked by the war.
Some parts of the country strongly opposed the war, especially in New England, where citizens considered that it was ruining their commerce. The strongest opposition of was for the federalists took place in the reunion or Hartford convection in May of 1814. Here, Federalists attacked the war. Also, they proposed a series of amendments to the constitution,