Egypt, Saudi-Arabia, and Jordan
Egypt recorded history, the longest continuous account in the world, dates from 3200 BC.
From then until 333BC, Egypt was a united kingdom under various dynasties of pharaohs.
After 333BC, the country's territory alternatively increased and decreased according to the conquest of foreign occupiers.
France's domination of the country from 1798 to 1801 ushered in the modern period of Egypt, which emerged from a long, dark age. Bonaparte's army included scientists, medical doctors and teachers.
A French officer unearthed the famed Rosetta Stone, and Jean Francois Champollion, the 1st Egyptologist, decoded its hieroglyphics, providing the key to Egypt's ancient glories, about which Egyptians for many centuries have known very little.
Thus many Egyptians look upon the French emperor as the father of modern Egypt.
Political disorganization after the French withdrew in 1801 gave rise in 1805 to the reign of Mohammad Ali, founder of the last Egyptian dynasty.
A key ingredient of that effort was the building of the Suez Canal.
After 10 years of construction, the canal was opened on November 17, 1989, creating the short route between Europe and the Italian Ocean and the Western Pacific.
Great Britain became the chief guardian of the canal.
The ruling dynasty was interrupted in 1882 by British occupation of Egypt. In 1914 the occupation status was changed and Egypt became a British protectorate.
In 1992, Egypt was returned to a kingdom under King Fouad and later, King Farouk.
Egypt was among the founding members of the United Nations and became a member of the Arab league in 1945.
Egypt was among the Arab states that rejected the UN decision in 1947 that led to the partition of Palestine, the State of Israel, and, in May 1848, the first Arab-Israeli war.
The peace agreement...