Q1. Describe the history of the junior high and middle school.
During the 19th century public schools in the United States were predominantly organized in the 8-4 plan eight years of elementary and four years of secondary school. Charles W. Eliot, in 1888 suggested to change this pattern of 8 - 4 to 6 - 6 comprising of six years of elementary education and six years of secondary education ((Lounsbury, 1998).
In 1918 Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education gave the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education that recommended first six years of schooling to be devoted to elementary education targeted at children of age group 6-12 years while the second six years were designed to meet the needs of children ages 12-18 years ((Vars, 1998).
The goal of the junior high school at that time was to meet the needs of the early adolescent. The middle school movement began in 1940's as a result of inability of the junior high school to generate a separate identity from the high school.
Middle schools were designed to capitalize on the positive attributes of the junior high school in the attempt to meet the unique developmental needs of children (Eichhorn, 1980).
Q 2. State the unique characteristics of emerging adolescent learners and how these characteristics affect the school environment.
- Medical evidence suggests that youngsters attain puberty at an earlier age than before.
- Youngsters aged 10-14 are in a unique stage of development sharing similar physical, mental, social, and emotional characteristics.
- The physical, emotional, intellectual, and social changes do not take place in isolation but are interconnected,
- These changes may overlap with each other.
- During this period both sexes are overly concerned with body development and compare within the same sex.
- Delays in the onset of the...