The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the first civilizations in the world. It was located in the southwest part of present day India along the Indus River. This civilization started around 2500 BC the same time as the Mesopotamia's, Egyptians, and the Chinese. The area known as Mesopotamia was thought to be the origin of humanity, but now we think that the Indus Valley people were just as old.
The people of the Indus Valley Civilization were a very advance group of people for their time. The were especially strong in the area's of mathematics and astronomy. They used their findings in math to help them when searching the stars. The people developed the beginnings of geometry and algebra. They created the idea of zero and the decimal system. They were the first people to use notation by tens. Even the Arabs called math "the Indian Art." The monasteries became Universities with large libraries used to study astronomy and mathematics.
We still use all of these ideas in our math classes today. The Indus Valley Civilization created a system of weights and measures used to measure gold and other possessions of the ancient world. The people even created indoor bathrooms. The toilets had brick seats and pipes that emptied into a main drain. The drains emptied into a complex sewer system. They were the first people to have a democratic governing body of state. The Indus valley civilization were the first people to grow cotton and make cotton cloth. The Indus Valley Civilization was ahead of it's time.
In the Indus Valley the people did an enormous amount of trading. They traded with Egypt, China, and the Romans. They imported and exported spices, exotic animals, jewelry, perfumes, textiles, and much more. The Indians received cargoes of animals and spices.