Alexis Charles Henri Maurice ClÃÂ©rel de Tocqueville was born July
29, 1805, in Verneuil, and studied law in Paris. This french political
writer and statesman, visited, in 1835, the great industrial city of
Manchester. During his stay, he describes in his personal diary, the
many abonible things he perceives, the industrial revolution, caused to
the human race and the environment in place.
Firstly, to explain the rapid urban growth of Manchester, we shall
consider the industrialisation of Great Britain at the time. Starting from
the XVIII century, England is the first country to industrialise. They
began in the industry of cotton textile, and perfected the production by
machines newly invented (perfected spinning process by Kay,
Horgreave and Arkwright). Their production was multiplied by ten
within twenty years, and by 1831 Britain's textile industry accounted for
22% of its GNP.
Manchester's geographical situation could also explain much
more. Indeed, the industrial agglomeration is situated not far from one of
the biggest ports of England, Liverpool.
The goods are then, transported
easily from the city to the port, which makes Manchester the ultimate
solution for a business in the textile industry. Not only it is next to a port
but also close to the coal mines of birmingham, that allow the simplicity
to "feed" the machines.
Industrialisation is at the moment a superb economic gift ("pure
Secondly, as a good observer, De tocqueville, describes a hostile
environment, in which the worker does not deserve to belong in. They
came from different regions, known to be, for most, rural (Ireland) or
poor, they had in mind objective to find a job and take care of their
family. Their dream immediately vanished on their arrivals at the
More than anything, was the geographic segragation put in place.
The workers lived outside...