NB. I am Australian and the above grade is what I estimate to be an A-. Which is the mark I recieved for the assignment.
NB. The hypothesis for my asignment is as follows: "Racism in the United States of America was constructed and continues to be maintained by the institutions, systems and practices of the predominantly white culture."
Institutionally Constructed Racism and its ongoing effects in Modern America
"In the land of the free, racial justice has yet to be won." (Cowie 1994 pg 243)
"Some Americans behave as if racial differences produce inherent superiority in European Americans (whites)." (Randall 2005) Most of these beliefs stem from past acts and practices of racism and discrimination. Much of the attention bought to this racism is focused only on aspects of individual racism, or acts committed by one person or one group; however the real problem lies with aspects of institutional racism.
Racism in the United States of America was constructed and continues to be maintained by the institutions, systems and practices of the predominantly white culture. This construction and maintenance of racism in institutions can be evidenced in, famous pieces of literature by American authors, such as, 'Notes on Virginia,' by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration of Independence, the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, the Supreme Court rulings of 1956, 1941 and 1964, the Civil Rights Legislations of 1957, 1960 and 1964 and the practices and systems of several organizations, government groups and medical services affiliates of the government.
Institutional racism did not begin in America. In fact it has existed since humans first began living in organized communities. For example, Ancient Romans discriminated against all those born outside of Rome. They considered them to be 'alien' or a 'barbarian' and not worthy of having the rights of every other Roman...