Supporters of sanctions point to the example of South Africa. Economic sanctions against that country helped end the practice of apartheid (a policy of racial segregation and political and economic discrimination) and contributed to the decision by then-leader F.W. de Klerk to concede power to Nelson Mandela in 1994.
U.S. Prepares for Attacks
The federal government has taken several recent steps to coordinate its responses to terrorism. Twenty different agencies are involved in counterterrorism efforts. In May 1998, Clinton signed a directive that gives the National Security Council responsibilities to coordinate those efforts. Officials hope that greater collaboration between counterterrorist agencies will help crack down on the threat of terrorism to U.S. citizens.
With the air strikes against alleged terrorist bases in Afghanistan and Sudan, the U.S. flexed its military muscles and indicated that it would not shy from using its defense capabilities to fight a war against terrorism. Experts on terrorism say that the U.S.
may be in for a decades-long battle against terrorism, however, and warn that U.S. citizens may be increasingly targeted by terrorists at home and abroad.
"I don't think the United States understands what it's in for," says David Anderson, a senior lecturer at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London who has studied the Islamic fundamentalist groups associated with bin Laden. "This will be a long, perhaps never ending, attritional war. Pandora's box has been opened, and it won't be closed again."