12 SA Reg
Introduction of Cultural Studies
Raymond Williams (1983) classified the concept of culture into three categories: culture with the big "C", culture as a 'way of life', and culture as a process of development. At the same time, as Rosati (2007, p. 558) noted, Williams (1977) also defined culture as the concept that represents "hegemonic, ordinary, negotiated Ã¢ÂÂ¦ compromised, and syncretic practices that make up the unremarkable, 'everyday' unities of social life". How do these two concepts correspond? Relate the bold variables. In what way(s) do Williams' classifications correspond with the concepts of 'hegemonic, ordinary, negotiated, compromised, and syncretic practices'? Elaborate.
Culture is defined by Raymond Williams (1989) as culture with the big "C", which is the arts and artistic activity that include music, literature, films, etc., the 'whole way of life' which he describes as "both the most ordinary common meanings and the finest individual meanings", and the process of development.
He refuses to choose only one of these definitions, but believes that these three elements coexist.
Williams realizes that the culture, which he emphasizes many times as ordinary, is being set by a kind of class that he describes as the "new, dangerous class" (hegemony). This dominant class influences the mind of ordinary people about the ideal or standard of what is good and what is not without using physical force, but some kind of way, such as using media and advertisement, that make the idea seems like a common sense. According to Daniel (2011), it is not a static structure, but a process where resistance and challenge from outside keep happening. Therefore, Dalbello (2008) states that negotiation and compromises are continually being made.
Williams especially disagrees to the division made by the dominant class...