Essay by Anonymous UserUniversity, Bachelor'sA+, September 1996

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From the ontological, epistemological, and ethical Irrationalism to the psychological and social irrationalism of individual psychology, manipulation of the masses has always gone hand in hand. During the infantile stages of its discovery to the full blown power seen in today's world, nothing alone has contributed more to the near total destruction or utopian existence in humankind's evolution than time itself. And with that I will briefly recite my perceptions of the latter.

For the most part, the Age of Reasoning saw its rewards on a recovering Europe. The reverberating affects the French revolution caused throughout the world left Europeans void of accustomed routines and allegiances. The ideals of the Enlightenment led to massive reorganization of leadership enforcing new social values in most every country. Many of the conventionalities the lower class population had become so dependant on were literally wiped from their lives, leaving huge voids in belief and purpose.

This is notably pointed out in such observations as Friedrich Nietzsche's analogies of humanity's removal from tradition. With the

church being secularized in most cases and feudalism crushed, the comfort found in the routine of their dominance was lost while, in general, a nationalist pride was invoked as a replacement.

It was also a time of technological prosperity, enhanced by this flourishing nationalism, that the emergence of yet another industrial revolution began, bringing such new technologies as electricity, huge advances in mass media, transportation and a barrage of other inventions fueling this great transformation. Mass education was rampant and the literacy rate rose dramatically. Populations doubled and even tripled with an influx of people moving into the cities to survive. Industrialization became the order of the day as supply and demand dictated expansion.

With the emergence of many different newspapers and mass communications throughout Europe, there came a 'collective...