Italian Fascism "Everything for the state, nothing outside of the state, nothing above the state!" -Benito Mussolini Fueled by anger and resentment for the political and economic problems within the country, war veterans and a plethora of other unhappy Italians banded with Benito Mussolini to establish Italian fascism in Milan on March 23, 1919 (Jazwinski 1).
The term fascist comes from the Italian word 'fascio' which is derived from the Latin word 'fasces'. 'Fasces' referred to the bundle of lictors, or axe-headed rods that symbolized the unchallenging state of authority within the Roman Republic (Mosse 210). Unlike Marxism, Fascism succeeded in gaining the respect of hard-working, everyday people who believed in Mussolini's promises. Mussolini pulled together disgruntled Italians, promising them an end to unemployment, land gains, and a stronger nation (Fascism in Italy 1).
The movement and Mussolini's promises were rooted in Nationalism. He felt that Fascism provided the middle ground between Marxism and Capitalism that would enable citizens to form the ideal national community.
Censorship, governmental control of news, a strong military, extreme nationalism, the use of violence and terror, state control of economy, blind loyalty to the leader, strict discipline and the rule of a dictatorship are the main ingredients for creating and maintaining a fascist state (Payne 2). It is important to note that unlike the strict cruelty of German Fascism, the Italian Fascists were content to allow private dissension as long as there was public cooperation. In addition, during this time that Italy was under Mussolini, University professors were left to teach as they wished as long as they confined free thinking to the classroom (Mosse 138).
In Italy Fascism was about restoring order based on the futuristic ideals of Mussolini in the quest to create the perfect society. Mussolini's followers were in search of...