Labor RelationsTable of Contents:1. Introduction2. Labor Challenges1)Economic and employment shifts2)Education and training3)Organizational restructuring4)Demographic diversity5)Work - Life balance3. Staffing1)Components Developed by Job Analysis2)Job Analysis and the Changing Nature of Jobs3)Job Analysis Related to other HR Activities4)Job Analysis Process5)Job Descriptions and Job Specifications6)Job Description Components4. The Human Resource Organization5. Summary6. BibliographyIntroduction:Economists traditionally have identified three factors of production: land, capital, and labor. In the pre-industrial society agriculture was the major source of wealth. Production was based on simple skills passed from father to son, crude farming tools, and incremental improvements made by each generation on it. 1"Capital and labor were wedded to the land, and economic power belonged to those who could control its use".
With the Industrial Revolution, capital became the critical economic factor. It was capital that bought the machinery that, more than skill, accounted for rising productivity. The labor that operated the machines was relatively untrained and easily replaceable.
Skill requirements increased as technology became more sophisticated, and workers gained more power by organizing, but capital remained the central factor in the mass-production economy. Government was concerned primarily with ensuring tranquil labor management relations, and employers with maintaining a dependable labor force. Neither displayed much concern with skill development.
In modern society the role of labor as a factor of production is becoming increasingly important. The world in which the bulk of the labor force was devoted to the production of goods is fading, just as did the world in which agriculture dominated the economic scene. The shift from manufacturing to service and information-processing activities and the increasing pace of technology changes are making manpower the key ingredient to the nation's well being and growth. In a service-oriented era the quality, quantity, and utilization of human resources are of central importance. Capital and natural resource...