Pronouns : Demonstrative Pronouns
Is, ea, id = he she it
Ille, illa, illud = he, she it/that
NB : ille, illa, illud is often used to indicate a change of subject from the previous sentence
e.g. Argus Quintum pugnat; ille fugit
Argus attacks Quintus; he (Quintus) flees
Ego = I, me
Tu = you (sg.)
Nos = we, us
Vos = you all
Se = himself, herself, itself, themselves
Used to refer to the 3rd Person subject of the sentence
e.g. Quintus se occidit
Quintus kills himself
e.g. Decimus sibi donum dat
Decimus gives himself a present
e.g. pueri se pulsat
The boys are punching themselves
The Possessive Adjective
Meus, mea, meum = my
Tuus, tua, tuum = your
Noster, nostra, nostrum = our
Vester, vestra, vestrum = your
NB : Use these adjectives to describe 1st and 2nd person possession
Do Not use the genitive of the personal pronoun
e.g. pater meus (correct), not pater mei (incorrect)
The Reflexive Adjective
Suus, sua, suum = his own/her own/it's own/their own
e.g. Quintus suam sororem non iuvat
Quintus is not helping his own sister
Two Irregular Verbs
Nolo, nolle = I don't want
Volo, volle = I want
Hic, haec, hoc = this
Ipse, ipsa, ipsum = -self
The River of Time
We have learnt the present tense. We will now learn all the past tenses, and the future tenses.
Future Time ____________________ Future Tense - I will look
Future Time ____________________Future Perfect Tense - I will have looked
Present Time ________________________ Present Tense - I am looking
Past Time ____________________Imperfect/Perfect Tenses - I was
looking/I have looked/I looked
Past Time ____________________ Pluperfect Tense - I had looked
The Principle Parts
From now on, you will learn 4 forms of each verb in your vocabulary list. These are called the 4 Principal Parts.
e.g. paro, parare, paravi, paratum
They are used when constructing different tenses. The first principal part is the present tense (paro = I prepare). It tells us the present stem (par-). The present stem is used to construct the present tense, the imperfect tense and the future tense.
e.g. par-o = I am preparing
para-bam = I was preparing (imperfect)
par-ab = I shall prepare (future)
Constructing the Imperfect Tense
Simply take the present stem, add the bridging vowel, and then the imperfect endings:
Bat NB : With the exception of -m in 1st person singular, we get the
Bamus familiar pattern of -o/m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt
Look at the first and second principle parts
Paro, parare = -o, -are = 1st Conjugation
Moneo, monere = -o, -ere = 2nd Conjugation
Rego, regere = -o, -ere = 3rd Conjugation
Audio, audire = -io, -ire = 4th Conjugation
Capio, capere = -io, -ere = Mixed Conjugation
Translating the Imperfect
e.g. Flaccus in agro diu laborabat
Flaccus was wo0rking in the field for a long time
Imperfect tense is most commonly used to describe a continuous action in past time.
e.g. was laughing/was working/was fighting/was listening
Sometimes the Imperfect tense is used to describe a habitual action.
e.g. cotidie Quintus ad ludum ambulat
Everyday Quintus used to walk to school
e.g. used to read/used to live/used to want/used to visit/etc.
The Imperfect tense is also used to describe an incomplete action
e.g. Horatia ianuam claudebat, com mater 'noli' inquit, 'ianuam claudere'.
Horatia was closing the door when her mother said: 'don't close the door'.
NB : English is sloppier in expressing time than Latin. Sometimes we translate an imperfect tense in Latin as a plain past in English.
e.g. Flaccus worked in the field for a long time
Imperfect of esse = 'to be'
Eram = I was
Eras = You were
Erat = He/she/it was
Eramus = We were
Eratis = You (pl.) were
Errant = They were
NB : we rarely say 'I was being' in English, so we should translate the imperfect tense of esse as a plain past :
e.g. 'stupidus eram' Quintus dicit
'I was stupid' says Quintus
The Perfect Tense
This is another past tense; it describes a complete action in past time (Perfect = complete, finished). You may translate it in two ways in English :
e.g. laboravi = I worked, I have worked
This second translation 'have worked' is called the true perfect, and we will learn more about it later.
Constructing the Perfect Tense
This is dead simple. There is no need to learn any bridging vowel. Simply take the perfect tense stem (the 3rd principal part with the -I removed) and add the perfect endings:
e.g. laboro, laborare, laboravi, laboratum
laborav-i = I worked, have worked
laborav-isti = You worked
laborav-it = He/she/it worked
laborav-imus = We worked
laborav-istis = You worked
laborav-erunt = They worked
Present tense of esse = 'to be'
Fui = I was, have been
Fuisti = You were, have been
Fuit = He was, has been
Fuimus = We were, have been
Fuistis = You were, have been
Fuerunt = They were, have been
Predicting the Perfect Stem
1st, 2nd and 4th conjugation verbs which are regular have an easy-to-learn pattern of forming the perfect.
1st conj. Paro, parare, paravi, paratum
-o, -are, -avi, -atum
2nd conj. Moneo, monere, monui, monitum
-eo, -ere, -ui, -itum
4th conj. Audio, audire, audivi, auditum
-io, -ire, -ivi, -itum
Expressions of Time
There are three kinds:
1. Duration of Time
e.g. tres horas laborabam
I was working for three hours
decem dies contenderunt
They marched for ten days
Duration of time uses the accusative case. Notice that only cardinal numbers are used.
2. Time at Which
e.g. decimo die Romam advenimus
We arrived at Rome on the tenth day
prima hora Roma discesserunt
They left Rome at the first hour
Time at which uses the ablative case. Notice that ordinal numbers are used.
3. Time Within Which
e.g. decem diebus Romam advenimus
We arrived at Rome within ten days
decem annis linguam Latinam didici
I learned Latin within ten years
Time from which uses the ablative case as well, but notice that it uses cardinal numbers and is very often plural
Roman Time Periods
hour = hora, -ae (f.)
tres hora = for three hours
prima hora = at the first hour
decem horis = within ten hours
day = dies, -ei (m.)
duos dies = for two days
secundo die = on the second day
novem diebus = within nine days
month = mensis -is (m.)
quattuor menses = for four months
nono mense = in the ninth month
octo mensis = within eight months
year = annus, -i (m.)
quinque annos = for five years
septimo anno = in the seventh year
septim annis = with in seven years
The Pluperfect Tense
This tense describes a completed (perfect) action farther back in time than either the perfect or imperfect. Translate with had in English .
e.g. nox iam advenerat cum Romam intraverunt
Night had already arrived when they entered Rome
cum filia domum redit, mater iam ad forum processerat
When the daughter returned home, her mother had already left for the forum
Forming the Pluperfect is dead simple:
Perfect stem + eram
e.g. vocav-eram = I had called vocav-eramus = We had called
vocav-eras = You had called vocav-eratis = You (pl.) had called
vocav-erat = He/she/it had called vocav-erant = They had called
Forming the Pluperfect
paro ÃÂ» paraveram I had prepared
monet ÃÂ» monuerat He had warned
audimus ÃÂ» audiveramus We had heard
captis ÃÂ» ceperatis You (pl.) had taken
regunt ÃÂ» rexerant They had ruled
Pluperfect form of the verb 'to be':
fueram I had been
fueras You had been
fuerat He/she/it had been
fueramus We had been
fueratis You (pl.) had been
fuerant They had been
Media Urbs = 'the middle city' (literally), but means 'the middle of the city'
Summus Mons = 'the top mountain' (literally), but means 'the top of the mountain'
e.g. in mediam urbem contendumus
We are marching into the middle of the city
ad summum montem ascendi
I climbed to the top of the Mountain
Expressions of Place
The preposition ad is used to describe motion to or towards.
e.g. ad urbem festinabam
I was hurrying tho the city
ad me ambulat
he is walking towards me
However, when we're travelling to a named city or town, we drop the ad and put the name of the town or city into the accusative case.
This is called the accusative motion towards
e.g. Romam festinabat
He was hurrying to Rome
They are marching towards Venusia
Note also that domum means = to/towards home.
e.g. 'domum redite, pueri!' magister clamavit
The master shouted 'go home, boys!'
Note that countries and states still require ad
e.g. Quintus ad Apuliam non redit
Quintus is not returning to Apulia
This is a case that the names of towns and cities have. It translates into English as in or at.
e.g. Horatia et Scintilla Venusiae manet
Horatia and Scintilla are staying Venusiae
Quintus in ludo Romae studet
Quintus is studying in a school at Rome
Forming the Locative Case
A simple rule. If the town or city's name is naturally singular (e.g. Roma), then the locative will be the same as the genative, e.g. Romae = at Rome.
If the town or city's name is naturally plural (e.g. Athenae), then the locative will be the same as the ablative, e.g. Athenis = at Athens.
Singular Place Names
Roma - Romae = at Rome
Corinthus - Corinthi = at Corinth
Londinium - Londinii = at London
Capua - Capuae = at Capua
Antium - Antii = at Anitum
Plural Place Names
Athenae - Athenis = at Athens
Cumae - Cumis = at Cumae
Puteoli - Puteolis = at Puteoli
Gades - Gadibus = at Gades
Cathage - Cathagine = at Cathage
Movement Away from a Place
Movement away from a named town or city uses the ablative case. Do NOT use 'a' or 'ab'.
e.g. Roma discesserunt
They departed from Rome
But: ad urbe contedunt
They are marching away from the city
e.g. ab Italia fugivit
He has fled from Italy
He was sailing away from Athens
Learn: domo = from home
Uses of the Ablative Case
The ablative has a wide range of meanings -
-by, -with, -from, -at, -in, -on
We here summarize the commonest usages, which are already familiar to you:
1. From : the ablative can express separation from a place or thing, usually with a preposition:
ab urbe venit he came from the city
e silva cucurrit he ran out of the wood
de monte descendit he came down from the mountain
Roma discessit he departed from Rome
domo festinavit he hurried from home
foro longe aberat he was a long way from the forum
So after some verbs and adjectives expressing separation from:
me cura liberavit he freed me from care
feminae liberae cura women free from care
moenia defensoribus vacua walls empty of defenders
2. At/it/on : the ablative can express place where, usually with a preposition:
in foro stabat he was standing in the forum
sub abore dormiebat she was sleeping under a tree
terra marique pugnabat they fought on land and sea
3. At/on : the ablative is used to express time when:
prima luce discesserunt they departed at dawn
quinto die redierunt they returned on the fifth day
and time within which :
tribus diebus rediit he returned within three days
multis post annis many years after
paucis ante diebus a few days before
An Irregular Verb
fero, ferre, tuli, latum = I carry, bear.
Imperatives = fer, ferte
NB : Other verbs with irregular imperatives include:
duco, ducere = duc, ducite
facio, facere = fac, facite
sem, esse, = est, este (estote)
Further uses of the Ablative Case
The ablative case can be translated into:
-by, -with, -from, -at, -in, -on
1. With/by: the ablative case can express the instrument with or by which something is done.
e.g. me gladio vulneravit
He wounded me with a sword
They were playing with balls
This use is very common in such phrases as:
equo vectus carried by (=riding on) a horse
gladio armatus armed with a sword
2. With: the ablative case can express the manner in which something is done.
e.g. summa celeritate rediit
He returned with the greatest speed
magna voce clamavit
He shouted in (with) a loud voice
3. With/of: the ablative is used in describing qualities.
e.g. est puer magno ingento
He is a boy of great talent
puella summa virtute
A girl of the greatest courage
4. Some adjectives take the ablative where English has a genitive.
e.g. iuvenis dignus est laude
The young man is worthy of praise
Adjectives ending in -er in the positive degree form comparitives and superlatives in the following way:
celer >> celerior >> cellerrimus
miser >> miserior >> miserrimus
pulcher >> pulcherior >> pulcherrimus
Adjectives ending in -ilis in the positive degree form comparitives and superlatives in the following way:
facilis >> facilor >> facillimus
difficilis >> difficilor >> difficillimus
Degrees of Adverbs
Adverbs also have degrees:
fortiter >> fortius >> fortissime
bravely >> more bravely >> most bravely
The adverb comparitive endings is -ius and the adverb superlative ending is -issime
NB : Adverbs do not decline.
NB : -er adverbs and -ile adverbs
e.g. celeriter >> celerius >> celerrime
facile >> facilius >> facillime
Ã¢ÂÂ The comparitive adverb is the same as the neuter comparitive adjective in the nominative.
Ã¢ÂÂ The superlative adverb is the same as the superlative adjective with -us changed to -e.
Irregular Comparison Adverbs
Note the use of:
Quam + Superlative
Translate into English as:
'As ____ as possible'
Also learn 'quam primum'
'As soon as possible'
'As big as possible'
'As fast as possible'
The Present Participle
The Present Participle has often occurred in the naratives.
e.g. coniurati Caesarem relinquerunt in terra
The conspirators left Caesar lying on the ground
Orbilius pueros spectavit ludum
Orbilius watched the boys entering the school
Participles are verbal adjectives; they decline like 'ingens' (except for the ablative singular which ends in -e, not -i). As adjectives, they always agree with a noun or pronoun in case, gender and number, e.g. in the first example above, iacentem agrees with Caesarem: accusative masculine singular. As verbs, they can take an object, e.g. in the second example, intrantes agrees with pueros, the object of spectavit, but has itself an object - ludum.
The present participle from the five conjugations are:
1. para2. mone-3. reg-4. audi-Mix. capi-
The present participle of all verbs are formed regularly except for eo, which has nominative singular iens.
The Future Tense
The future tense describes an action that will take place in future time. The future tense is constructed using the present stem.
There are two set of endings. One set is:
and is used by the first and second cunjugations.
par-a-boI will prepare
par-a-bisYou will prepare
par-a-bitHe/she will prepare
par-a-bimusWe will prepare
par-a-bitisYou all will prepare
par-a-buntThey will prepare
Another set of endings:
is used for 3rd, 4th and mixed conjugations.
reg-amI will rule
reg-esYou will rule
reg-etHe/she/it will rule
reg-emusWe will rule
reg-etisYou will rule
reg-entThey will rule
The bridging vowels are used only for the 1st, 2nd, 4th and mixed conjugations, which are:
Future Tense of the verb 'to be':
eroI will be
erisYou will be
eritHe/she/it will be
erimusWe will be
eritisYou will be
eruntThey will be
The Future Perfect Tense
This describes a completed action in future time.
e.g. iam Quintus Athenas advenerit
By now Quintus will have reached Athens
English rarely uses the future perfect and instead prefers to use the present, so often you'll find yourself translating a Latin future perfect into an English present.
e.g. cum Athenas adveneris, in Academia studebis
When you will have arrived at Athens, you will study in the Academy
When you arrive at Athens (sounds better in English)
NB : a future perfect verb occurs earlier in time than a future verb.
Alter, Uter and Uterque
One (or the other)Masc.Fem.Neuter
puer altera manu librum ferebat alter stilum
In one hand the boy was carrying a book, in the other a pen
duo homines forum inierunt: alter iuvenis erat, alter senex
Two men entered the forum: one was young, the other old
Which (of two)Masc.Fem.Neuter
NB : If -que is placed after each word, e.g. -uterque, it means each (of two).
et scintilaa et horatia flaccum maxime desiderabant; ubi ille domum rediit, uterque laetissima erat
Both Scintilla and Horatia missed Flaccus very much; when he returned, each was very happy.
'utrum ... an''Either ... Or'
This introduces double questions:
e.g. utrum in urbe manebis, an domum redibis?
Will you (either) stay in the city, or will you return home?
Future Perfect and Future
English: When I reach Rome, I will tell you everything
English often uses the present tense to describe the future
Latin: cum Romam advenero, tibi omnia narrabo.
I have arrived I will tell
The Perfect Passive Participle
The perfect passive participle is a verbal adjective (participle) that describes an action that the noun it agrees with has suffered (passive). This action has occurred prior to the action of the main verb (perfect).
e.g. Quintus cenam matre paratam devorat
Quintus eats the prepared by his mother dinner (literal)
Quintus eats the dinner prepared by his mother