Lava flows

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Lava flows are streams of molten rock that pour or ooze from an erupting vent. Lava is erupted during either nonexplosive activity or explosive lava fountains. Lava flows destroy everything in their path, but most move slowly enough that people can move out of the way. The speed at which lava moves across the ground depends on several factors.

. type of lava erupted and its viscosity

. steepness of the ground over which it travels

. whether the lava flows as a broad sheet, through a confined channel, or down a lava tube

. rate of lava production at the vent

Fluid basalt flows can extend tens of kilometers from an erupting vent. The leading edges of basalt flows can travel as fast as 10 km/hour on steep slopes but they typically advance less than 1 km/hour on gentle slopes. But when basalt lava flows are confined within a channel or lava tube on a steep slope, the main body of the flow can reach velocities >30 km/hour.

Viscous andesite flows move only a few kilometers per hour and rarely extend more than 8 km from their vents. Viscous dacite and rhyolite flows often form steep-sided mounds called lava domes over an erupting vent. Lava domes often grow by the extrusion of many individual flows >30 m thick over a period of several months or years. Such flows will overlap one another and typically move less than a few meters per hour.

Everything in the path of an advancing lava flow will be knocked over, surrounded, or buried by lava, or ignited by the extremely hot temperature of lava. When lava erupts beneath a glacier or flows over snow and ice, meltwater from the ice and snow can result in far-reaching lahars. If lava enters a body of water...