Many scientists throughout time have contributed to our knowledge of motion as we know it today. Though laws of motion weren't always about and motion wasn't scientifically correct for a long time.
Aristotle's scientific theory and ideas in motion were completely wrong. Aristotle thought he needed to explain both why motion occurs and why motion might change. Though really the right idea was motion needs no explanation that it only changes in motion that requires a physical cause. Aristotle gave three reasons for motion:
1. Natural motion, such as falling, came from the tendency of objects to go to their "natural" place, on the ground, and come to rest.
2. Voluntary motion was the type of motion exhibited by animals, which moved because they chose to.
3. Forced motion occurred when an object was acted on by some other object that made it move
Though many of Aristotle's theories of the causes of motion was incorrect.
Like when he said motion had to be caused by a force. To explain why an arrow kept flying after the bowstring was no longer pushing on it, he said the air rushed around behind the arrow and pushed it forward. We know this is wrong, because an arrow shot in a vacuum chamber does not instantly drop to the floor as it leaves the bow.
Galileo did not make much progress on causes of motion. As opposed to Aristotle, Galileo believed that motion needed no explanation that it only changes in motion that requires a physical cause. Another thing that he assumed differently to Aristotle was his concept of inertia. With Galileo's dynamics the arrow, continued to fly through the air because of the law of inertia. Aristotle had failed to analyse inertia correctly. Galileo publicized his ideas aggressively and his writing was...