1. Describe how the cross-sectional research design differs from the longitudinal design. What do these two strategies have in common?
A cross-sectional research design is a research method in which groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time; longitudinal design is a research design that the same participants are observed repeatedly, sometimes over many years. The difference that a cross-sectional research design unlike longitudinal design is that cross-sectional design uses participants at certain age, and the participant will change into another group of age-interval; but the longitudinal design select participants and keep follow-up actions while the child is growing. The common part of the two strategies is that the two ways have to do research for participants for a long period of time, for instance, maybe 10 years.
6. Define attachment. Identify two infant behaviors that reflect whether a child is securely attached.
Attachment is the emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver. That is, a child will tend to love his/her babysitter rather than his/her own parents, assume that the parents hire babysitter to take good care of the baby for a long period of time per day. A securely attached children show some distress when the parents leave the room because the child will know his/her parents will return soon; and they will seek for proximity, comfort, and contact upon reunion, since it gives desire and harmony to the child.
7. What are the two important dimensions of parenting styles? How are these dimensions related to an authoritative parenting style?
The two important dimensions of parenting styles are demandingness and responsiveness. Demandingness refers to the parent's willingness to act as a socializing agent, and responsiveness refers to the parent's recognition of the child's individuality. The demandingness of...