Living In The Environment Principles, Connections, and Solutions : Miller 12th Edition Chapter 2 Outline
Chapter 2: Environmental History: An Overview
2-1 Cultural Changes and the Environment
Revolution Industrial Revolution
Information and Globalization Revolution
More energy and power to change and alter plant to meet our basic needs
Allowed expansion of human population (at expense of other populations), mostly because of increased food supplies and longer life spans.
Increased environmental impact because of resource use, pollution, and environmental degradation.
Hunter-gatherers had little impact on environment because
Low basic needs (little demand on environment to provide)
Agricultural Recolution-10,000- 12,000 years ago
Early ways of agriculture
Slash-and-burn cultivation- Cutting down trees and other vegetation in a patch of forest, leaving the cut vegetation on the ground to dry, and then burning it. The ashes that are left add nutrients to the nutrient-poor soils found in most tropical forest areas. Plots must be abandoned after a few years (typically 2-5 years)
Shifting cultivation- Clearing a plot of ground in a forest, especially in tropical areas, and planting crops on it for a few years (typically 2-5 years) until the soil is depleted of nutrients or the plot has been invaded by a dense growth of vegetation from the surrounding forest. Takes 10- 30 years to return to normal.
Industrial Revolution- mid-1700s spread to the US in the 1800s
Shift from renewable wood resource and flowing water to dependence on machines running on nonrenewable fossil fuels (first coal, later oil and nature gas)
Reduced need for farmers
Information and Globalization Revolution- now
New technologies have increased the rapid exchange of information on a global scale.
Many positive sides to Information and Globalization Revolution
Helps us understand the Earth better.
Allows us to respond to the environmental problems more effectively and rapidly.
Develop computer models to make maps of Earth's environmental systems.
Environmental Science essays:
Miller 12th Edition Chapter 1 Outline Living In The Environment Principles, Connections, and Solutions.
... The environmental impact (I) of population on a given area depends on three factors: the number of people (P) average resource use per person; affluence (A) the environmental effects of the technologies used to provide and consume ...
... the Industrial Revolution. United Nations meetings have discussed controlling CO2 production for years, with marginal success (Cunningham and Cunningham ...
... These environmental problems include: being aware of where off-road vehicles are driving, the speeds at which off-road vehicles move, and off-road vehicles going on trails prematurely and spin their wheels instead of using other ...
... the population increases, the problems of food production, water supply, energy production, and environmental destruction become more prominent. Contributing FactorsNegative human impacts:Food production ...
... more resources in the future. Most of the "population increase occurs in less developed countries and regions of the world, those least able to support their growing millions and withstand the consequences of growth: environmental degradation, economic ...
... causes and effects of human overpopulation? Simonetta, J. (2009)Human population is a very big environmental issue ... in population due to migration are experiencing a shortage in their fresh water sources, their food supplies decrease, and their ...
... resources, and the conservation of energy. To solve these environmental problems, the root cause of the problems will have to be looked at first (Population Reference Bureau, 2008). ProblemThere are four factors, which are responsible for the steadily increasing human population ...
... more technologically advanced. People are moving out of the city and into the country or suburb areas. These days people are concerned about pollution, convenience, and raising there children. These reasons could be why the population has ...