Logical Fallacies

Essay by mrbudziszUniversity, Bachelor'sA+, June 2006

download word file, 3 pages 4.0

Generally, logical fallacies can be placed into three categories. The three categories include, material fallacies, verbal fallacies, and fallacies of relevance (Sahakian & Sahakian). When someone is presenting a possible argument they use both premises and presuppositions. Premises are considered to be the starting points of a possible argument and can be proven, on the other hand presuppositions are considered to be the assumptions that can not be proved or disproved. In order to really to understand what a fallacy is, you must understand that an argument has one conclusion and one or more premises. Presuppositions are considered to be inevitable due to human bias (Chittick). Because presuppositions cannot be proved or disproved, they have to be taken on a faith bases. It is important to have the ability to identify the presuppositions because you must distinguish them from the premises (Richardson).

Material fallacies primarily deal with the evidence of a premise.

When the evidence of an argument contains material fallacies the conclusion does not have the proper support and cannot be proven. "Material fallacies arise out of the fabric used to express an argument" (Vos Savant). When an individual presents a fallacy that lacks evidence they are drawing a conclusion that has very little support. The following is an example of a material fallacy. "That type of car is poorly made; a friend of mine has one, and it continually gives him trouble." When an argument is presented with a lack of evidence there is only support for the conclusion, and all other facts of the argument were overlooked. This material fallacy is a good example of how the conclusion was formed before all of the evidence was gathered (Richardson).

Verbal fallacies are primarily discovered or presented by the misusage of words (Richardson). When an argument contains "improper...