Management of Healthcare Organization
Performance improvement in the health care area involves full participation of the staff in four main keys: design, data collection, aggregation and analysis and performance improvement itself. In order to achieve these goals, participation of professionals should begin at the start of the design process to share interests and ownership. Specifically, the medical and nursing staffs play an indispensable role in Credentialing and Privileging, Performance Measurement, Preventing Sentinel Events, and Peer Review Processes. Licensed professionals are the only individuals in healthcare qualified to fulfill these functions. Leadership, elected and appointed, is an important piece of the process of setting expectations, developing plans, and managing measuring processes involving several disciplines and teamwork (MSPI, 2001).
There are several tools available to support TQM. Tools used across all industries include ISO 9000, tree diagrams, and control charts. Tools specific to healthcare include the Health Care Finance Administration (HCFA), the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), the Healthcare Quality Certification Board (HQCB), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the American Nurses Association (ANA) (Bodenheimer, 1999).
Managing Healthcare Organization
ISO 9000 is a set of standards adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1987. ISO 9000 is a four-phase process for ensuring quality in both manufacturing and service industry. Phase one involves a documentation review of policies and procedures. Phase two is a comprehensive inspection of the physical facility through an on-site initial audit. In phase three, an ISO 9001, 9002, or 9003 certificate is issued. During phase four, indefinite, biannual visits ensure that quality is maintained and supported throughout the life of the company. The highest level of certification is ISO 9001, and most companies seeking ISO certification do not even attempt this rigorous level of accreditation. When used as a tool (with or without...