Any organisation, any enterprise cannot become successful without management.
However management as a science in such kind in which we have it now, has appeared not at once.
As soon as people began to live in organised groups, the necessity of management has appeared. At the first stage where groups of people were insignificant, management in all spheres was carried out by one person - the leader of this group. Further, in process of group growth and complication of functions carried out by them, the necessity of labour division and group differentiation has appeared. But it couldn't happen at once, it required centuries. The Egyptian pyramids build in 3000 - 2000 B.C. are a good example not only ancient Egyptian's culture, but also their administrative art. Construction of huge pyramids demanded, first of all, precise planning (Paul Shepheard, 1997, p 62).
While the practice of management can be traced back to 3000 B.C.,
it was not given serious attention until 1800 when large organisations emerged.
Industrial revolution has given a push to development of theoretical researches and management practices.
However, till an epoch of capitalism function of management was carried out by the owner himself and a small group of the persons approached to him. The role of the specially trained managers developed during an epoch of monocapitalism. Having been faced with a competition, changeable environment, managers developed knowledge system of how it is better to use resources.
During all history of management development we distinguish two approaches: classical and modern.
Scientific ManagementOccurrence of scientific management takes place at the beginning of 20th century and is connected to F.W.Taylor's name, Henri L.Gantt, Frank and Lilian Gilbreth.
Scientific management focuses on worker and machine relationship. Organisational productivity can be increased by increasing the efficiency of production process.
Other representative of...