Proactive is the ability to plan for the future and make the necessary corrections based on what did not work in the past. Public relations professionals have a chance to gauge the success of the message he or she is trying to send to the intended publics of the organization. For the simulation, the use of polls and surveys since these tools identify the current attitudes of the intended publics. These tools also are a good way to track changes in the attitudes of the publics in order to make changes if needed.
Some of the ineffectual ways of deploying this plan would be to have a system that does not allow feedback from the various publics. This would not allow the public relations department to effectively know what the relevant publics, especially the customers really think of the company's products. Another ineffectual way would be having polls that are biased and do not allow the individual taking the survey to give his or her honest opinion, but may force only positive feedback.
A proactive crisis management is used so the organization is ready for an emergency or a crisis situation. Therefore, the crisis management plan should always be in placed. This will mean that the organization should plan for any crisis whether it is an act of nature, a human error, or an intentional act. By having a plan already in place allows an organization to know what needs to be done during a crisis situation and allows for a more credible organization.
Reactive crisis management is utilized when a situation has already gotten out of hand and the public relations specialist is usually called in to help "fix" the problem. Public relations specialists make use of various tools in order to help end the crisis and bring credibility...