IntroductionIt is estimated that more than 50% of packaged goods and bulk cargoes currently transported by sea can be regarded as dangerous, hazardous or harmful to the environment. These cargoes come in the form of liquefied gases, liquid chemicals in bulk, solid products in bulk and dangerous goods in packages. Invariably goods are potentially more dangerous when being handled then when being carried, therefore it's essential that a uniform system of classification was required because of the many parties involved in the shipment of Dangerous Goods, including shippers, stevedores, ship-operators and consignees, as well as other modes of transport such as road and rail. Safe practises are required not merely for carriage, but also when being moved within a port area and loaded/stowed on board a ship. The risks posed by the increased carriage of hazardous, dangerous, and noxious goods by sea have resulted in progressive formulation and adoption of international technical standards to promote maritime safety (Bievre 1986).
We shall look at the maritime risks, regulations for safe carriage of dangerous goods and handling requirements below.
Risks associated with Maritime TransportationNowadays there are a large number of different types of containers that are transported by container vessels carrying huge variety of cargoes including dangerous goods. The typical standard containers are either 20' or 40' long, 8' wide, and 8'6" high, non-standard containers include 45' containers that are 45' long, high-cube containers that are 9'6" high, and several types of pallet-wide containers that are a few centimetres wider to accommodate non-standard pallets inside. There are reefer containers that need power supply, out-of-gauge containers (OOG) that may have cargo sticking out of one of the gates, and open- top containers that may have cargo out of the top.
The magnitude of risks involved are getting greater to manage on these vessels...