Marketing - The 4P's
Most of your marketing experiences have been as a buyer. Think about how many items you purchased in retail stores during your lifetime. What is your first recollection of a purchase? Probably grabbing something at the grocery store while your mother attempted to keep you under control. How does it happen that a buyer can go to the grocery store and find items to buy at an acceptable price? Who made what decisions to places orange juice just where you need it, at the time you need it, at the price you can afford, and tell you about it?
How do marketing systems in a nation come to be? People have a need for a product and have been informed about the product through the firm's promotion of that product. The customer requires that the product or service be in some geographic place and available within some narrowly defined time period.
Of course this must all take place at a price the buyer is willing to pay. These requirements to meet a buyer's needs are often referred to as the "4 P's" of marketing:
How the 4 P's are implemented in a nation depends in large part on how society sets up its infrastructure. Infrastructure is the physical support structure that moves things from place to place in a society. The "things" being moved about could be people, products, voice, video, water, electricity, data, letters, parcels, raw materials, etc.. Because of the enormous scale (size) of building infrastructure within a nation, the government generally undertakes the project or provides legal and financial support to private enterprises to encourage firms to take on the needed projects. Examples of such projects would be roads, canals, dams, railroads, post offices,