Measuring Brand Awareness, Brand Image, Brand Equity and Brand Value
The purpose of this essay is to provide an overview and references on the various methods that can be used to measure brand knowledge (brand awareness and brand image), brand equity and brand value. This note provides a short definition of each concept and illustrations of the most widely-used measurement techniques. Once you know what you want to measure, it is important to look at the original sources cited to understand how to properly use these techniques. Keller's (2003) excellent book also provides detailed information on each concept and its measurement.
1. Brand knowledge
Brand knowledge refers to brand awareness (whether, and when, consumers know the brand) and brand image (what are the associations that consumers have with the brand) (Keller 2001). The different dimensions of brand knowledge can be classified in a pyramid (adapted from Keller 2001), in which each lower-level element provides the foundations of the higher-level element. In other words, brand attachment stems from rational and emotional brand evaluations, which derive from functional and emotional brand associations, and which necessitate brand awareness.
The Brand Knowledge Pyramid
1.1 Brand Awareness
Brand awareness measures the accessibility of the brand in memory. Brand awareness can be measured through brand recall or brand recognition. Brand recall reflects the ability of consumers to retrieve the brand from memory when given the product category, the needs fulfilled by the category, or some other type of probe as a cue. Brand recognition reflects the ability of consumers to confirm prior exposure to the brand.
* Please name all the brands of beverages/soft drinks/carbonated soft drinks you can think of.
* Please name all the brands of beverages you can think of that you would bring to an INSEAD party.
* 15 % of consumers think of Orangina...