Minerals: Vanadates.

Essay by geomikeUniversity, Bachelor'sB-, October 2005

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1. Introduction.

Vanadates are a source of vanadium (V) which is a common element in the earths crust but it is only found in small quantities. Vanadium is used in industry to strengthen steel, it is used in making an iron alloy called ferrovanadium. Vanadium does not readily react with any other chemicals but it can absorb neutrons; it can be used in nuclear reactors. South Africa has one of the richest sources of minerals containing vanadium.

Vanadates are mined for other important elements which include zinc, copper, lead and uranium. Uranium is used in nuclear power plants as a heat source as it is radioactive.

2. Mineral identification.

Mineral class and sub-class:

Vanadates are a sub-class of the Phosphates class of minerals. Minerals in the class of phosphates have the same general chemical formula which is: (AO4)ˉ". The A stands for the either Vanadium (V), Antimony (Sb), Arsenic (As) or Phosphorous (P), all these elements are interchangeable.

Many phosphates form solid solution series between the V, Sb, As and P. A solid solution series occurs when two or more structurally identical minerals can interchange elements within their chemistries without dramatically altering the crystal structure. they can occur in a series right next to each other in nature. Phosphates have a generally high density and can range in hardness from 4 to 7 on the Mohs' scale of hardness. They form many different minerals and join with other ions like hydroxide groups, uranyl groups, water and halogens. The (AO4) group forms a tetrahedron with 4 oxygen anions surrounding the (A) cation making a very dense crystal structure.

Vanadates are any minerals that contain the (VO4)ˉ" group and there are about 50 vanadate minerals that belong to many different groups called the apatite, adelite vanadium oxysalt and descloizite groups. Minerals in...