Essay by ryanray3 April 2006

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I believe that the expectancy theory is the best due to the fact that employees like to be recognized for hard work. Recognition is a very powerful motivation tool.

Expectancy Theory (Vroom)

Victor Vroom's expectancy theory posits that motivation is a result of rational calculation. A person is motivated to the degree that he or she believes that (1) effort will yield acceptable performance, (2) performance will be rewarded, and (3) the value of the reward is highly positive.

Vroom's expectancy theory is based on three beliefs. Those beliefs are: valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes or rewards. Management must find out what the employees value with some examples being: raises, time-off, and an employee of the month program.

Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision employees need. Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing.

Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that the employees are aware of that. Instrumentality is the perception of employees whether they will actually get what they deserve even if it has been promised by a manager.

I believe that motivation is very important. Motivation is not something a person is born with or without, but rather is something that can be enhanced or developed. Motivation affects employees or individuals differently, so management must understand the processes, theories, and fundamental components of motivation in order to motivate everyone effectively. Rewarding employees when they achieve the desired result is imperative for any successful organization.

Types of motivation can lead to friendly competition between coworkers, which in turn will actually help the company's production. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to behave...