Essay by joanguloCollege, UndergraduateB+, November 2014

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Class #2 September 8

How do you define music?

Organized sound

Rhythm- The beat

Meter- a bar

Formula for figuring out meters. -> how may? What gets a beat?

Syncopation- accents on upbeats

Grave- very slow

Largo- broad

Lento- slow

Edagio- slow

Andante- moving

Andantino-slightly faster than andante

Moderato- moderate

Allegretto- moderately fast

Allegro- fast

Vivace- fast & lively

Presto- very fast

Prestissimo- as fast as possible

Tempo- speed

Melody- the tune

Counter melody- 2 melodies

Pitch- how high or how low music sounds

Harmony- stuff under melody


Neumatic- few notes per syllable

Melismatic- many notes per syllable

Syllabic- one note per syllable

Class #3 September 15

Renaissance (1450-1600)

Printing press

Humanism- humans have value

Ancient Greece and Rome- columns

Michelangelo, davinci

It will be simple, classical (music)


Josquin Desprez- religious music. He was a prodigy- really talented a very early age.

A cappella- without instrument

Motet, Ave maria (c1485) polyphonic-polyphony.

/Texture-latin. /Sacred. /Text setting-neumatic.

Martin Luther- 95 thesis, complain from the church

Catholic church took 20 years meeting to change some things-reformation

3 complains

Irreverence of the musicians- bad attitude of the musicians

Secular music invading the church- Latin and French at same time

Polyphony obscured the text- change the language latin to th common languge of the people-> music in the church, listening god by the music. Writer of the church- Palestrina

Proper- words change depending on the season

Ordinary- stays the same no matter time of year the parts are:

Kyrie- lord have mercy (3 times)

Christe- christe have mercy

Agnus Dei- lamb of god who washed our sins away

Sanctus- holy (3 times)

Credo- I believe

Gloria- Gloria be to god

Machant- French-> sacred/secular

Troubadours from france, they were traveling secular musicians, making rumours about the court. Sing about love, play differnet instruments.

Class #4 September 22

Baroque art and music.

(1500- 1650)

Extravagance, and expectacular

Absolute monarchy- Luis xiv " I am the state" Luis xiv

Music is fast and all over the place. The art doesn't have define lines, many colors and highly dramatic.

Basso Continuo: playing by cello and harpsichorol

Figured bass: continued bass line

Most elaborate is melismatic

Modes: middle ages/ renaissance. In the 1600 major and minor skills were developed

Ostinato (base line): stubborn, out changing.

Terraced dynamics: changing volumes all of the sudden, from low to high or viceversa. More dramatic.


Union of music, drama, scenery, costumes and dance

Libretto: text or words (little book)

Aria : 1) musical drama

2) very little text (melismatic)

3) full orchestral accompaniment

Recitative: 1) get the plot going

2) a lot of text and words

3) chordal accompaniment

Chambe music

instrumental music

one person per part

small ensemble

listening Barbara strozzi, the secret lover. vibrato: shacking. And melismatic, Italian secular

Henry Purcell, English author. Ostinato bass line repeats 2 times , minor key, slow, dynamics/dissonaire

Sonata: type of chamber music

Concerto: solo orchestra(instrumental)…. Concerto grosso: group of soloists

Vivaldi: known as the red priest (he had red hair), fired cause affair while teaching his music lessons

Class #3 September 29

Bach, the late baroque (1685-1750)


Organ/ piano king of instruments

3 of his 20 children were musicians



Bach known as "the father of fugue"

#6 Brandenburg concertos , grossos (baroque flaute)

cadenza: solo passage improvised (theme)

George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)

Water music, London

Dance suite: set of dances

Oratorio: sacred version of opera (no costumes or scenery, sacred text -> bible story)

Messiah (song): life and death of Jesus

All Listening

Gregorian chant, Hildegard of bingen monophonic, young voice, soprano, middle ages, one line

Troubadour song, I must sing middle ages, female singer,

Guillaume Dufay, this month of may multiple instruments, male, sounds happy, secular, start with instruments

Josquin Desprez, ave maria sacred, young voice, latin

Palestrina, Sanctus of the mass polyphonic, latin, sacred, renaissance

Madrigal, Thomas weelkes, as vesta bla English madrigal, late renaissance, secular, singing in beginning

Strozzi, the secret lover middle ages, secular

Purcell, dido and aeneas

Vivaldi, violin concerto just instrument, easy

Branderburg, bach all instrumental, no vocals

Handel, messiah English, female voice, mixed music and vocal, melismatic, oratoria

Class #4 October 13

Classical Style

(1750-1820) Anything written in this years

Consonant, clean lines

Pretty much like renaissance but more complicated


Comic opera( max 2 hours)

Vernacular language of the people (Italian)

First time of public concert halls

American revolution independence and new way to think and express

Pianoforte loud and soft piano, dynamics. Hammer that hits the strings, so if u hit harder it will sound harder

Elements clarity , order and balance

Texture Homophonic, melody/ accompaniment

Composers Haydn and Mozart

Haydn the most well paid musician ever. But he had to follow the rules, never married or into the social life. Like 104 symphonies.

Patrogane system pay you

Mozart was a rebel, more that a rule breaker.. his father used him for fame and fortune

Sonatas, concertos and symphonies

Sonata-allegro(first movement) FAST (form and tempo)

Exposition- introduces the theme

Development- develops theme

Recapitulation- coda tail

SLOW (theme and variations


FAST (sonata, allegro or rondo)

Class #5 October 27

Vocal music

Classical Opera

Mozart and opera singspiel: comic opera (German)

Die zauberflite Mozart famous piece (magic flute)

Beethoven Classical to romatic

German prodigy

Abusive alcoholic father, he ended drinking too.

Anger, frustration, overwhelmed, depression

Hearing loss from 18, 20 deaf

Social isolation

Classical 1808 movement 1- form, allegro (fast)

Movement 2- theme & variations, slow

Movement 3-

Movement 4- almost not ending (code)

Class #6 November 3

Beethoven, Emotional music (Love), powerful crescendos

Pantheism, god and nature are one, or seeing god trough nature

Romantic melody, lyrical (singable)

Chromatic harmony, half step motion

Rubato, ideas of flexibility of what are you doing. (chopin)

Hypemarks, exaggeration of emotion if Fs or Ps more laugher

Invention of French horn 1820s (1840 saxophone just to remember)

Virtuoso, someone that is really god at what they do

Lied (solo voice in piano)

Nicolo Paganini, extraordinary power with the violin.

Franz Schubert (died 31 years Syphilis) he liked freedom, Germany

Robert schumann, droped from law school decide to be a musician

Friedrich Wieck, piano teacher. Robert had Syphilis, schizophrenic, he broke his hand trying to make it larger, the wife became pianist maintaining them economicaly, he had 10 kids, he jumped from a bridge and ended in an institute for mental disease.

Class #7 November 10

Program Music (programmatic), instrumental music that tells a story

Hector Berlioz, French composer, mirror Robert schumann. He had a fascination with Shakespeare

Fixed idea, is the sign in musical phrase to a person, place or thing.

Chopin, mazurka (dance)

Romantic opera: Italy

Giuseppe Verdi, just wrote Italian operas

Class #8 November 17

Romantic opera: Germany

Comic opera, Richard Wagner, studied philosophy, never studied music, he learn from himself ( self-taught)

Bavaria Ludwig ii, liked wagner, the king gave him a castle and lot of money.

New opera, music drama, he was the only one that did it gesantkanstwerk (total art work) ballet, singing, dancing all in one.

Leitmotif (fixed idea) theme equal person, place or thing (signature-tune)

He had his own tuba ( wagner tuba)

He was the only musician ever to make a new libretto.

Chromatic armony, (shifting keys).

Realistic opera

Listening for the test.

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