Class #2 September 8
How do you define music?
Rhythm- The beat
Meter- a bar
Formula for figuring out meters. -> how may? What gets a beat?
Syncopation- accents on upbeats
Grave- very slow
Andantino-slightly faster than andante
Allegretto- moderately fast
Vivace- fast & lively
Presto- very fast
Prestissimo- as fast as possible
Melody- the tune
Counter melody- 2 melodies
Pitch- how high or how low music sounds
Harmony- stuff under melody
Neumatic- few notes per syllable
Melismatic- many notes per syllable
Syllabic- one note per syllable
Class #3 September 15
Humanism- humans have value
Ancient Greece and Rome- columns
It will be simple, classical (music)
Josquin Desprez- religious music. He was a prodigy- really talented a very early age.
A cappella- without instrument
Motet, Ave maria (c1485) polyphonic-polyphony.
/Texture-latin. /Sacred. /Text setting-neumatic.
Martin Luther- 95 thesis, complain from the church
Catholic church took 20 years meeting to change some things-reformation
Irreverence of the musicians- bad attitude of the musicians
Secular music invading the church- Latin and French at same time
Polyphony obscured the text- change the language latin to th common languge of the people-> music in the church, listening god by the music. Writer of the church- Palestrina
Proper- words change depending on the season
Ordinary- stays the same no matter time of year the parts are:
Kyrie- lord have mercy (3 times)
Christe- christe have mercy
Agnus Dei- lamb of god who washed our sins away
Sanctus- holy (3 times)
Credo- I believe
Gloria- Gloria be to god
Machant- French-> sacred/secular
Troubadours from france, they were traveling secular musicians, making rumours about the court. Sing about love, play differnet instruments.
Class #4 September 22
Baroque art and music.
Extravagance, and expectacular
Absolute monarchy- Luis xiv " I am the state" Luis xiv
Music is fast and all over the place. The art doesn't have define lines, many colors and highly dramatic.
Basso Continuo: playing by cello and harpsichorol
Figured bass: continued bass line
Most elaborate is melismatic
Modes: middle ages/ renaissance. In the 1600 major and minor skills were developed
Ostinato (base line): stubborn, out changing.
Terraced dynamics: changing volumes all of the sudden, from low to high or viceversa. More dramatic.
Union of music, drama, scenery, costumes and dance
Libretto: text or words (little book)
Aria : 1) musical drama
2) very little text (melismatic)
3) full orchestral accompaniment
Recitative: 1) get the plot going
2) a lot of text and words
3) chordal accompaniment
one person per part
listening Barbara strozzi, the secret lover. vibrato: shacking. And melismatic, Italian secular
Henry Purcell, English author. Ostinato bass line repeats 2 times , minor key, slow, dynamics/dissonaire
Sonata: type of chamber music
Concerto: solo orchestra(instrumental)Ã¢ÂÂ¦. Concerto grosso: group of soloists
Vivaldi: known as the red priest (he had red hair), fired cause affair while teaching his music lessons
Class #3 September 29
Bach, the late baroque (1685-1750)
Organ/ piano king of instruments
3 of his 20 children were musicians
Bach known as "the father of fugue"
#6 Brandenburg concertos , grossos (baroque flaute)
cadenza: solo passage improvised (theme)
George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
Water music, London
Dance suite: set of dances
Oratorio: sacred version of opera (no costumes or scenery, sacred text -> bible story)
Messiah (song): life and death of Jesus
Gregorian chant, Hildegard of bingen monophonic, young voice, soprano, middle ages, one line
Troubadour song, I must sing middle ages, female singer,
Guillaume Dufay, this month of may multiple instruments, male, sounds happy, secular, start with instruments
Josquin Desprez, ave maria sacred, young voice, latin
Palestrina, Sanctus of the mass polyphonic, latin, sacred, renaissance
Madrigal, Thomas weelkes, as vesta bla English madrigal, late renaissance, secular, singing in beginning
Strozzi, the secret lover middle ages, secular
Purcell, dido and aeneas
Vivaldi, violin concerto just instrument, easy
Branderburg, bach all instrumental, no vocals
Handel, messiah English, female voice, mixed music and vocal, melismatic, oratoria
Class #4 October 13
(1750-1820) Anything written in this years
Consonant, clean lines
Pretty much like renaissance but more complicated
Comic opera( max 2 hours)
Vernacular language of the people (Italian)
First time of public concert halls
American revolution independence and new way to think and express
Pianoforte loud and soft piano, dynamics. Hammer that hits the strings, so if u hit harder it will sound harder
Elements clarity , order and balance
Texture Homophonic, melody/ accompaniment
Composers Haydn and Mozart
Haydn the most well paid musician ever. But he had to follow the rules, never married or into the social life. Like 104 symphonies.
Patrogane system pay you
Mozart was a rebel, more that a rule breaker.. his father used him for fame and fortune
Sonatas, concertos and symphonies
Sonata-allegro(first movement) FAST (form and tempo)
Exposition- introduces the theme
Development- develops theme
Recapitulation- coda tail
SLOW (theme and variations
MINUET OR SCHERZO (dance)
FAST (sonata, allegro or rondo)
Class #5 October 27
Mozart and opera singspiel: comic opera (German)
Die zauberflite Mozart famous piece (magic flute)
Beethoven Classical to romatic
Abusive alcoholic father, he ended drinking too.
Anger, frustration, overwhelmed, depression
Hearing loss from 18, 20 deaf
Classical 1808 movement 1- form, allegro (fast)
Movement 2- theme & variations, slow
Movement 4- almost not ending (code)
Class #6 November 3
Beethoven, Emotional music (Love), powerful crescendos
Pantheism, god and nature are one, or seeing god trough nature
Romantic melody, lyrical (singable)
Chromatic harmony, half step motion
Rubato, ideas of flexibility of what are you doing. (chopin)
Hypemarks, exaggeration of emotion if Fs or Ps more laugher
Invention of French horn 1820s (1840 saxophone just to remember)
Virtuoso, someone that is really god at what they do
Lied (solo voice in piano)
Nicolo Paganini, extraordinary power with the violin.
Franz Schubert (died 31 years Syphilis) he liked freedom, Germany
Robert schumann, droped from law school decide to be a musician
Friedrich Wieck, piano teacher. Robert had Syphilis, schizophrenic, he broke his hand trying to make it larger, the wife became pianist maintaining them economicaly, he had 10 kids, he jumped from a bridge and ended in an institute for mental disease.
Class #7 November 10
Program Music (programmatic), instrumental music that tells a story
Hector Berlioz, French composer, mirror Robert schumann. He had a fascination with Shakespeare
Fixed idea, is the sign in musical phrase to a person, place or thing.
Chopin, mazurka (dance)
Romantic opera: Italy
Giuseppe Verdi, just wrote Italian operas
Class #8 November 17
Romantic opera: Germany
Comic opera, Richard Wagner, studied philosophy, never studied music, he learn from himself ( self-taught)
Bavaria Ludwig ii, liked wagner, the king gave him a castle and lot of money.
New opera, music drama, he was the only one that did it gesantkanstwerk (total art work) ballet, singing, dancing all in one.
Leitmotif (fixed idea) theme equal person, place or thing (signature-tune)
He had his own tuba ( wagner tuba)
He was the only musician ever to make a new libretto.
Chromatic armony, (shifting keys).
Listening for the test.