Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of the greatest Anti-Transcendentalist writers of
all time. He utilized his writings to express his dark, gloomy outlook on life.
ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ Hawthorne, a descendant of a puritan family, was born in Salem,
Massachusetts. Some of his ancestors included a judge known for the harsh
persecution of Quakers, and another judge who played an important role in the Salem
witchcraft trials. Hawthorne's attitude was molded by a sense of guilt, which he traced
to his ancestor's actions. After college, Hawthorne lived, secluded, for 12 years in his
mother's house. He then published Twice Told Tales which didn't sell very well, yet at
the same time, established him as a well known and respected author. He became
good friends of two Transcendentalist writers of the period -- Ralph Waldo Emerson
and Henry David Thoreau. He also taught the only other Anti-Transcendentalist writer
of his period -- Herman Melville. His most popular book, The Scarlet Letter, earned
Hawthorne international fame.
He died in his sleep while on a walking tour in New
ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ The period of time during which Hawthorne wrote was the New England
Renaissance in America. By the year 1840, it was clear that the American experiment
in Democracy had succeeded. England, trying again to retake their old land in 'The
Second American War for Independence', was no longer a threat to the survival of the
republic. Andrew Jackson, the first "people's president", had served 2 terms in office.
New states were entering the Union. One French observer stated that Americans
had, "a lively faith in the predictability of man", and that they, "admit that what appears
to them today to be good may be superseded by something better tomorrow."
ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ ÃÂÃ There were two types of writing styles during Hawthorne's life --
Transcendentalism and Anti-Transcendentalism. Many of the authors...