The role of a manager is rapidly changing and demands a fresh perspective at present situation. The new managerial thoughts and organisational approaches like empowerment, delegation decentralisation and self-managed teams has ensued the changes as compared to the traditional approach.
2. Classical approach of the manager
Traditional or classical management focuses on efficiency and includes bureaucratic, scientific and administrative management. (Ward M., 1995)
2.1 Bureaucracy management
Weber, M., known as the Father of Modern Sociology analysed bureaucracy as the most logical and rational structure for large organisations. Bureaucracies are founded on legal or rational authority, which is based on law, procedures, rules, hierarchy and so on. Positional authority of a superior over a subordinate stems from legal authority. Charismatic authority stems from the personal qualities of an individual. Efficiency in bureaucracies comes from: (1.) clearly defined and specialised functions; (2.) use of legal authority; (3.) hierarchical form; (4.)
written rules and procedures; (5.) technically trained bureaucrats; (6.) appointment to positions based on technical expertise; (7.) promotions based on competence; (8.) clearly defined career paths. (Weber, M.)
Bureaucracy is best suited for stable environment however its weaknesses are inflexible or slow decision making process, slow response to change and the rules becomes the end.
2.2 Scientific management
Taylor, F. W., known as the Father of Scientific Management, published Principles of Scientific Management in which he proposed work methods designed to increase worker productivity. Scientific management focuses on worker and machine relationships. Increasing the efficiency of production processes can increase organisational productivity. The efficiency perspective is concerned with creating jobs that economise on time, human energy, and other productive resources. Jobs are designed so that each worker has a specified, well-controlled task that can be performed as instructed. Specific procedures and methods for each job must be followed with no...