1.) Geology, Geography, Geophysics, Physics, Chemistry, Geochemistry, Mathematics, Meteorology, Botany, and Zoology.
2.) Sailing close to the shore; to travel from landmark to landmark; using birds, waves, cloud formations & observing astronomical bodies.
3.) 265-194 B.C.
4.) It established world boundaries listing more then 8000 places by longitude and latitude. He said the earth's circumference was 29,000 km when it's really 40,067 km and knowing that it led Columbus to believe that America was Asia.
5.) Shib building improved the ships became more seaworthy & easier to sail; portolanos, harbor finding charts which noted hazards to navigating, also introduced the magnetic compass.
6.) The Arabs established regular trade routes across the Indian Ocean.
7.) In Europe it was the desire for the riches of new lands such as the silks and spices.
8.) Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian navigator who was honored for making several voyages to the new world for Spain & Portugal.
He also accepted South America as it's own contenent apart from Asia.
9.) Magellon's voyage was not only the first to complete the circumnavigation of the earth, but he also established the length of a degree of longitude and measured the circumference of the earth.
10.) The N.W. passage was a trading shortcut around the noth side of North America to China. In traveling this passage you could not only show off your country's flag, but you could also have acces to many riches, such as the gold located in Spain.
11.) Before John Harrison's clock, to determine one's location out at sea you'd have to know how to relate the loctaion of the stars and sun to the corresponding time of day. With his clock one could travel out to sea for many days and his timing would only be off by 51 seconds.
12.) He made soundings to depths of 1500' and logged accurate observations of water tempature, currents and winds.
13.) He wanted to find a route between America and England that wouldn't have such a long delay of news that travels between the two.
14.) Mathew F. Maury founded the Naval Depot of Chart for the US Naval Hydrographic Offie, which is now knowsn as the US Naval Oceanographic Office; where he was a lieutenant. From reviewing ship's logs he was able to produce wind and current charts of the North Atlantic, which was later published in the first sea atlases of sea conditions and sailing directions. He also published "The Physical Geography of the Sea." This also included chapters on the Gulf Stream, the Atmosphere, currents, depths, winds, climates, storms, and the first contour chart of the North Atlantic Sea floor which later became known as the first oceanography textbook.
15.) From collecting organisms in deep water and through observing them he proposed a system of ocean depth zones which was characterized by specific animal population. He was mistaken because he theorized that there was no life below 550 meters.
16.) Drifting plants and animals which are now called plankton.
17.) The Challenger expedition was a 3 year voyage that's purpose was to research. On this voyage they took soundings at 361 different ocean stations varying in depths all the way down to 26,8500', collected deep-sea water samples, investigated deep-water motion and made temperatures at different depths, collected many sea-bottom samples and brought evidence that life does exist on all levels of the sea. The challenger reports were all the information compiled and organized into 50 different volumes.
18.) It was unique because they laid down the foundation for the science of Oceanography.
19.) Fridtjof Nansen was a Scandinavian oceanographer, who was well known for being an athlete, explorer, zoologist, and someone who who was interested in current systems of the polar seas. Fridtjof wanted to test his idea on the direction of the artic's ice drift, and he did this by freezing a vessel into some of the polar ice and drifting along with the currents.
20.) Nansen bottle (designed to collect and isolate water samples from varying depths), Ride Predicting Machine (a machine that produced predictions and predicted tide tables by combining tidal theory with astronomical predictions) and the Echo Sounder (Nansan's water bottle combined with thermometers to give not only water temperatures, but also an accurate method for determining the water's salt content.
21. The U.S. oceanographic research focus changed after the Civil War because in the U.S., government agencies were concerned with gathering information to further commerce, fisheries and the navy. After the Civil War, the replacement of sail by steam lessened government interest in studying winds and currents and in surveying the ocean floor. Private institutions became important contributors to oceanography and at this time they then move more onto university campuses and foundations for research.
22. The following have affected oceanography research during the twentieth century the Office of Naval Research funded applied research programs and research vessels, the National Science Foundation underwrote basic research and the Atomic Energy Commission financed work at the South Pacific atoll sites of atomic tests. The NOAA was formed under the Department of Commerce, which combines the survey team and a fleet of National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental Data Services, National Environmental Satellite Service and Environment Research Laboratories. NOAA has a broad mandate in many fields relating to the overall objectives of the Department of Commerce to aid in the industrial revitalization or economic growth of the nation by increasing exports and the U.S. competitive position in the world market.
23. The U.S. government's institutional support for oceanography before World War II was of low interest. Once steam had replaced wind sailing after the Civil War, private institutions did much of the research. During WWII the military was having problems and the U.S. and they needed to be solved quickly so then the government's interest developed. Oceanographers then pooled their knowledge in a national effort to solve these war problems. As a result of this, after the war there was much government funding and they also had an array of new-sophisticated instruments to work with.
24. The emphasis on ocean research changed during the 1960's, 1970's and 1980's because in about 1957-1958 IGY program, which sixty-seven nations cooperated to explore the sea floor and made discoveries that completely revolutionized geology and geophysics. In 1963-1964 the Indian Ocean Expedition was in progress also and that followed by the ten-year International Decade of Ocean Exploration in the 1970's. In 1978 SEASAT satellite was launched and this new sophisticated satellite could measure great distances with radar. During the 1970's and 1980's earth scientist began to recognize the signs of global degradation and the need for management living and nonliving resources and from there research and technological advances the ocean research changed from research to learn to research to solve problems.
25. The advancements of ocean technology during this period were the Deep Sea Drilling Program, which was a combination of teams working together; electronics were developed by the space program and applied to ocean research, computers went aboard research vessels, and for the first time data could be sorted, analyzed, and interpreted at sea and experiments could be adjusted while they were in progress, and government funding allowed large-scale research to take place. Instrumentation grew ever more sophisticated and expensive over this period SEASAT was a specialized satellite that was one of the technological advances during this period because it could measure distances accurately, and also technology increased their ability to harvest the sea. 26. Scientist are interested in data collected by satellite as well as research vessels because it is not possible with just the research vessel to study more than a small area of one ocean at a time, but with the satellites oceanographer can study the oceans as a global system. The huge amounts of information satellites provide are processed by computers and the vessels also are linked to satellites via computers which allows scientists to use immediate data to plan their sampling programs while they are still at sea.
27. The scientific targets for investigation currently include the effect of ocean circulation on the earth's climate balance, the managements of living and nonliving resources, the transport of materials from the land to the deep ocean basins, the chemistry of the interaction of seawater with the earth's crust, the dynamics of the continental margins and the oceans seabed, the energy sources of the sea, the exchange of gases between the oceans and the atmosphere, methods of decreasing the cost of ocean transport, and increasing food availability. At the same time, scientist using refined sensors and techniques will continue to seek answers to the basic questions of how and why ocean processes occur and the relationship of these processes to sea resources and to ourselves.
28. Satellites create ocean study opportunities that are not available to research vessels because satellites such as ERS, SEASTAR, ADEOS and TOMS will complement ongoing programs by monitoring the role of clouds, radiation, water vapor, and precipitation on our weather systems, the gas exchange between the oceans and the atmosphere, and the role of the polar ice. This use of more sophisticated satellite sensing, rather than vessels has the potential to move the sciences toward an understanding of the total earth.
29. Oceanographers are interested in global approach to ocean science because scientists recognize the earth as a complex of systems and subsystems acting as a whole. Driving the unified study of global change are the recognition that individual sciences need to cross discipline in order to advance, the worldwide concern over accelerated changes in the earth's environment due to human causes and the recognition that more sophisticated satellite sensing has the potential to move the sciences toward an understanding of the total earth.
30. The role that individuals play in the advancement of our knowledge is that studies that are driven by a specific research interest of an individual scientist will continue to add knowledge and are essential to point out new directions for oceanography and the other earth sciences, although cooperative ventures have achieved much and will achieve much more.