Introduction Robbins defines motivation as "The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal". (Organisational Behaviour, 9th edition, Stephen P Robbins, 2000).
Despite the number of books on the subject few, if any, provide a method for the accurate measurement of motivation.
Motivation is an individualÃÂ¡ÃÂ¦s psychological response to an objective. The determination of whether employees are highly motivated therefore becomes, what would seem to be, an impossible task, whilst determination of the areas in which the motivation is to be assessed must also be considered.
This paper discusses the tools that are available to help determine the concepts of motivation and its assessment.
Theories Of Motivation Early Motivation Concepts In the early 1950's, three specific theories were formulated which, although now questionable in terms of validity, are probably the best known explanations for employee motivation. They are: The Hierarchy of Needs Theory - (Abraham Maslow) There is a hierarchy of five needs - physiological, safety, social esteem, and self - actualisation - and as each need is satisfied, the next need becomes dominant The X and Y Theories - (Douglas McGregor) Theory X: that employees dislike work and responsibility, are lazy and must be coerced to perform.
Theory Y: that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction The Two-Factor Theory ÃÂ¡V (Frederick Herzberg) Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction Current Concepts of Motivation More recent theories represent the current state of the art in explaining motivation and, although not unquestionably right, they have a reasonable degree of valid supporting documentation.
ERG Theory - (Clayton Alderfer) Theory of Needs - (David McClelland) Cognitive Evaluation Theory - (Unknown) Goal Setting Theory - (Edwin Locke) Theories Of Motivation Reinforcement Theory...